2,785 research outputs found

    The NA62 RICH detector

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    The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the very rare kaon decay K+ → π+ÎœÂŻÎœ at the CERN SPS with a 10% accuracy. The Standard Model prediction for the branching ratio is (8.5±0.7)×10−11. One of the challenging aspects of the experiment is the suppression of the K+ → ÎŒ+ΜΌ background at the 10−12 level. To satisfy this requirement a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH), able to separate π± from Ό± in the momentum range between 15 and 35 GeV/c, with a ÎŒ misidentification probability better than 10−2, is needed. The RICH must also have a time resolution of about 100 ps to disentangle accidental time associations of beam particles with pions. The RICH will have a very long focal length (17m) and will be filled with Ne gas at atmospheric pressure. Two tests beam were held at CERN in 2007 and 2009 with a RICH prototype. The results of the two tests beam will be presented: the ÎŒ misidentification probability is found to be about 0.7% and the time resolution better than 100 ps in the whole momentum range

    Applications of Cement-Based Smart Composites to Civil Structural Health Monitoring: A Review

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    In recent years, cement-based smart composites (CSCs) doped with conductive filler have attracted increasing research interest because of their high potentiality as self-sensing materials for civil Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. Nevertheless, several issues are still open and need further studies. This paper presents an extensive state-of-the-art in which investigations on CSCs are summarized and critically revised, with the primary aim of outlining the main limits and development points. The literature review first addresses in detail several specific issues related to fabrication and operation as sensing elements of CSC samples. State-of-the-art applications of CSCs to SHM of reduced-, medium- and full-scale structural prototypes are extensively reviewed afterwards, resulting in a database useful to critically revise the main trends and open issues of the research in this field

    Experimental behavior of existing RC columns strengthened with HPFRC jacket under concentric and eccentric compressive load

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    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures built before the 1970 represent a large portion of the existing European buildings stock. Their obsolescence in terms of design criteria, materials, and functionality is becoming a critical issue for guaranteeing adequate compliance with current structural codes. Recently, a new jacketing system based on the use of high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (HPFRC) has been introduced for strengthening existing RC building members. Despite the promising aspects of the HPFRC jacketing technique, currently, a comprehensive and systematic technical framework for its implementation is still missing. In this paper, the experimental performance of RC columns strengthened with the HPFRC jacket subjected to pure axial load and combined axial load-bending moment uncoupled from shear is investigated. The test outcomes confirmed a significant improvement of the structural performance for the strengthened columns, especially for higher values of eccentricity. Finally, a standard-based practice-oriented analytical tool for designing retrofit interventions using the HPFRC jacket is proposed. The comparison between the calculated and experimental results revealed a satisfactory prediction capability

    Experimental study on the in-plane response of adobe masonry wallets strengthened with textile reinforced matrix systems

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    Seismic strengthening of existing adobe masonry (AM) buildings has been recognized as a critical issue due to the dramatic consequences of recent seismic events occurred especially in developing countries, where a great part of the population lives in those constructions. Previous studies investigated the effectiveness of different retrofitting techniques by means of experimental programs consisting of either dynamic or static tests on reduced- or full-scale specimens, representing partial or complete AM dwellings. In this study, the output of diagonal compression tests on adobe masonry panels before and after external strengthening are presented. Three series of specimens were tested, namely, unreinforced and strengthened wallets with textile reinforced matrix (TRM) systems made of either hemp or glass meshes. Those tests benefitted from the characterization of the mud mortar that was used for both masonry joints and matrix, representing typical characteristics of existing Italian AM buildings. Main testing outcomes obtained for the AM wallets, particularly in terms of observed damage and response curves, are presented and discussed. In the end, the effectiveness of the applied TRM systems in the improvement of shear strength and ductility capacity is assessed

    Experimental in-plane lateral response of a full-scale adobe masonry wall with opening

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    A large amount of world population lives nowadays in earthen buildings, often constructed only based on construction practice and within earthquake-prone regions. In the recent history, several strong earthquakes had dramatic consequences on these structures, highlighting their significant seismic vulnerability due to multiple reasons, such as poor mechanical properties, poor detailing, and large inertia mass. Several aspects of seismic performance of existing earthen constructions need to be investigated through full-scale experimental testing. In this regard, the present study aims at contributing to the investigation by testing a full-scale adobe masonry wall with a central door-type opening under in-plane lateral loading with cyclic fashion. The mechanical behaviour of materials, specimen's design, loading protocol and instrumentation setup are described. The experimental response curves, observed damage evolution and failure mode are discussed, especially focusing on dissipation capacity of the wall

    New development: Directly elected mayors in Italy: creating a strong leader doesn’t mean creating strong leadership

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    More than 20 years after their introduction, directly elected mayors are key players in Italian urban governance. This article explains the main effects of this reform on local government systems and provides lessons for other countries considering directly elected mayors

    Development status of the LAUE project

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    We present the status of LAUE, a project supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and devoted to develop Laue lenses with long focal length (up to 100 meters), for hard X--/soft gamma--ray astronomy (80-600 keV). Thanks to their focusing capability, the design goal is to improve the sensitivity of the current instrumention in the above energy band by 2 orders of magnitude, down to a few times 10−810^{-8} photons/(cm2^2 s keV).Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures, presented at the Space Telescopes and Instrumentation Symposium in Amsterdam, 2012: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray Conference. Published in the Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8443, id. 84430B-84430B-9 (2012

    The practices of apartheid as a war crime: a critical analysis

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    The human suffering caused by the political ideology of apartheid in South Africa during the Apartheid era (1948-1994) prompted worldwide condemnation and a variety of diplomatic and legal responses. Amongst these responses was the attempt to have apartheid recognised both as a crime against humanity in the 1973 Apartheid Convention as well as a war crime in Article 85(4)(c) of Additional Protocol I. This article examines the origins, nature and current status of the practices of apartheid as a war crime and its possible application to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    Robust pricing and hedging of double no-touch options

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    Double no-touch options, contracts which pay out a fixed amount provided an underlying asset remains within a given interval, are commonly traded, particularly in FX markets. In this work, we establish model-free bounds on the price of these options based on the prices of more liquidly traded options (call and digital call options). Key steps are the construction of super- and sub-hedging strategies to establish the bounds, and the use of Skorokhod embedding techniques to show the bounds are the best possible. In addition to establishing rigorous bounds, we consider carefully what is meant by arbitrage in settings where there is no {\it a priori} known probability measure. We discuss two natural extensions of the notion of arbitrage, weak arbitrage and weak free lunch with vanishing risk, which are needed to establish equivalence between the lack of arbitrage and the existence of a market model.Comment: 32 pages, 5 figure