559 research outputs found

    The role of Micro-RNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: From Molecular Biology to Treatment

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    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer deaths. microRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNA that negatively regulate gene expression and protein translation. Recent evidences have shown that they are involved in many biological processes, from development and cell-cycle regulation to apoptosis. miRNAs can behave as tumor suppressor or promoter of oncogenesis depending on the cellular function of their targets. Moreover, they are frequently dysregulated in HCC. In this review we summarize the latest findings of miRNAs regulation in HCC and their role as potentially diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for HCC. We highlight development of miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets for HCC

    Oligometastatic gastric cancer: an emerging clinical entity with distinct therapeutic implications

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    Gastric cancer (GC) remains responsible for a high burden worldwide being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Most of patients present at an advanced stage at diagnosis and are thus candidates to standard chemotherapy resulting in median survival of less than 1 year. Oligometastatic gastric cancer is an increasingly recognized clinical entity characterized by limited metastatic spread that has been showing to benefit from aggressive multimodality strategies encompassing chemotherapy and surgery. The ongoing RENAISSANCE/AIO-FLOT5 (NCT02578368) phase III trial is aimed at evaluating if perioperative chemotherapy with FLOT in combination with surgical resection of the primary tumour and metastases could become the new standard of care for oligometastatic GC. In the meantime, in addition to currently available clinical parameters, the emerging predictive/prognostic role of biomarkers such mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability high status needs to be specifically addressed also in this subgroup of GC to assist in patient selection

    The evolving role of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: A review

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    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular marker of a deficient mismatch repair (MMR) system and occurs in approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), more frequently in early than late-stage of disease. While in sporadic cases (about two-thirds of MSI-H CRCs) MMR deficiency is caused by an epigenetic inactivation of MLH1 gene, the remainder are associated with Lynch syndrome, that is linked to a germ-line mutation of one of the MMR genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2). MSI-H colorectal cancers have distinct clinical and pathological features such as proximal location, early-stage (predominantly stage II), poor differentiation, mucinous histology and association with BRAF mutations. In early-stage CRC, MSI can select a group of tumors with a better prognosis, while in metastatic disease it seems to confer a negative prognosis. Although with conflicting results, a large amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests a possible resistance to 5-FU in these tumors. The higher mutational load in MSI-H CRC can elicit an endogenous immune anti-tumor response, counterbalanced by the expression of immune inhibitory signals, such as PD-1 or PD-L1, that resist tumor elimination. Based on these considerations, MSI-H CRCs seem to be particularly responsive to immunotherapy, such as anti-PD-1, opening a new era in the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic CRC

    Role of docetaxel in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma

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    With a median survival of 9-11 months, advanced gastric cancer represents one of the most aggressive neoplastic disease in western Countries. Radical surgery is considered the cornerstone for any curative procedure, however only a relatively small proportion of resected cases can be considered cured after surgery. In the last few years research data suggested that advanced gastric cancer can be classified into 2 distinct clinical categories: locally advanced (nonmetastatic, non resectable) and metastatic. While the therapeutic goal in the metastatic setting is palliation and survival improvement, in locally advanced cases one of the main goals of the treatment should be response with the aim to make resectable what was unresectable. The introduction of docetaxel for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer represented then a crucial step forward for the cure of this disease with an improvement in both survival and response rate. In this article we reviewed past and ongoing trials using docetaxel in gastric cancer with the aim to delineate a possible effective strategy for the treatment of this tumou

    Metronomic Capecitabine Effectively Blocks Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis From Breast Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review.

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    BACKGROUND Meningeal carcinomatosis is a rare complication in breast cancer patients. At present, there are no defined guidelines for its management. The efficacy of systemic treatment seems to depend on its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier and its interaction with tumor vasculature. Metronomic chemotherapy is a known modality of drug administration able to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. CASE REPORT We present a case of symptomatic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer successfully treated with capecitabine. Based on the hypothesis that angiogenesis contributes to neoplastic meningitis, the patient was treated with a metronomic schedule that provided long-term clinical benefit with a very low toxicity profile. CONCLUSIONS To assess the real impact of metronomic chemotherapy in patients with meninges involvement, a phase II study will be starting soon in our institution. A review of the literature concerning the management of meningeal carcinomatosis is also presented

    Neoadjuvant treatments in triple-negative breast cancer patients: where we are now and where we are going

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    Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains the poorest-prognosis breast cancer (BC) subtype. Gene expression profiling has identified at least six different triple-negative subtypes with different biology and sensitivity to therapies. The heterogeneous nature of TN tumors may justify the difficulty in treating this BC subtype. Several targeted agents have been investigated in clinical trials without demonstrating a clear survival benefit. Therefore, systemic chemotherapy remains the cornerstone of current clinical practice. Improving the knowledge of tumor biology is mandatory for patient management. In stages II and III, neoadjuvant systemic treatment is an effective option of care. The achievement of a pathological complete response represents an optimal surrogate for survival outcome as well as a test for tumor drug sensitivity. In this review, we provide a brief description of the main predictive biomarkers for tumor response to systemic treatment. Moreover, we review the treatment strategies investigated for TNBCs in neoadjuvant settings focusing on experimental drugs such as immunotherapy and poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase inhibitors that hold promise in the treatment of this aggressive disease. Therefore, the management of TNBC represents an urgent, current, unmet need in daily clinical practice. A key recommendation is to design biology-driven clinical trials wherein TNBC patients may be treated on the basis of tumor molecular profile

    Panitumumab: the evidence for its use in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

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    Panitumumab is the first fully human monoclonal antibody to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) to enter clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. The anti-tumor activity of panitumumab has been tested in vitro and in vivo, and inhibition of tumor growth has been observed in numerous cancer models, particularly lung, kidney and colorectal (CRC). Preclinical and clinical studies have established a role for panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) refractory to multiple chemotherapeutic regimens. Based on these encouraging findings, panitumumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing mCRC refractory to fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and/or irinotecan-containing chemotherapeutic regimens. The improvement in progression free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR) produced by panitumumab monotherapy was significantly greater in patients with non mutated (wild-type) K-RAS than in those with mutant K-RAS. Therefore implementing routine K-RAS screening and limiting the use of EGFR inhibitors to patients with wild-type K-RAS appears the better strategy for select only the patients who could benefit from the therapy with panitumumab and also may have the potential for cost savings. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the patient-related, disease-related and economic-related evidence for the use of panitumumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in clinical practice

    Angiogenesis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A controversial issue

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) occurs in the majority of cases with early loco-regional spread and distant metastases at diagnosis, leading to dismal prognosis with a 5-year overall survival rate moderately over than 5%. This malignancy is largely resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, but the reasons of the refractoriness to the therapies is still unknown. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that the PDAC microenvironment and vascularity strongly contribute to the clinical features of this disease. In particular, PDAC is characterized by excessive dense extracellular matrix deposition associated to vasculature collapse and hypoxia with low drug delivery, explaining at least partly the low efficacy of antiangiogenic drugs in this cancer. Strategies aimed to modulate tumor stroma favoring vasculature perfusion and chemotherapeutics delivery are under investigation
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