353 research outputs found

    Practical considerations regarding results from static and dynamic load testing of bridges

    Get PDF
    Bridge tests are a helpful tool for bridge assessment and evaluation. Both in the case of a static and dynamic load testing, each element of the test: the load selection and application, the creation of a numerical model to follow the progress of the test or to check the validity of the test results, the measurement process itself and the comparative analysis of experimental results and calculations could be a source of errors in the bridge final evaluation if these errors and uncertainties are not properly considered. The article presents some of the most important factors that may bring errors in the interpretation of the test results and their comparison to targeted values or values derived from a numerical model. This, at the end, may result in the adoption of decisions that are not accurate and appropriate. The selected sources of feasible errors are presented with the division into static and dynamic loading tests. The presented examples of bridge load testing show how the use of improper test methods could lead to significant errors in bridge assessment and evaluation and, consequently, to wrong decisions.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Bridge damage detection based on vibration data: past and new developments

    Get PDF
    Overtime, bridge condition declines due to a number of degradation processes such as creep, corrosion, and cyclic loading, among others. Traditionally, vibration-based damage detection techniques in bridges have focused on monitoring changes to modal parameters. These techniques can often suffer to their sensitivity to changes in environmental and operational conditions, mistaking them as structural damage. Recent research has seen the emergence of more advanced computational techniques that not only allow the assessment of noisier and more complex data but also allow research to veer away from monitoring changes in modal parameters alone. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art developments in vibration-based damage detection in small to medium span bridges with particular focus on the utilization of advanced computational methods that avoid traditional damage detection pitfalls. A case study based on the S101 bridge is also presented to test the damage sensitivity to a chosen methodology.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

    Get PDF
    Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Cracking assessment in concrete structures by distributed optical fiber

    Get PDF
    In this paper, a method to obtain crack initiation, location and width in concrete structures subjected to bending and instrumented with an optical backscattered reflectometer (OBR) system is proposed. Continuous strain data with high spatial resolution and accuracy are the main advantages of the OBR system. These characteristics make this structural health monitoring technique a useful tool in early damage detection in important structural problems. In the specific case of reinforced concrete structures, which exhibit cracks even in-service loading, the possibility to obtain strain data with high spatial resolution is a main issue. In this way, this information is of paramount importance concerning the durability and long performance and management of concrete structures. The proposed method is based on the results of a test up to failure carried out on a reinforced concrete slab. Using test data and different crack modeling criteria in concrete structures, simple nonlinear finite element models were elaborated to validate its use in the localization and appraisal of the crack width in the testing slab.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author’s final draft

    Simplified probabilistic model for maximum traffic load from weigh-in-motion data

    Get PDF
    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in Structure and infrastructure engineering on 2016, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/15732479.2016.1164728This paper reviews the simplified procedure proposed by Ghosn and Sivakumar to model the maximum expected traffic load effect on highway bridges and illustrates the methodology using a set of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) data collected on one site in the U.S.A. The paper compares different approaches for implementing the procedure and explores the effects of limitations in the site-specific data on the projected maximum live load effect for different bridge service lives. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to study changes in the final results due to variations in the parameters that define the characteristics of the WIM data and those used in the calculation of the maximum load effect. The procedure is also implemented on a set of WIM data collected in Slovenia to study the maximum load effect on existing Slovenian highway bridges and how the projected results compare to the values obtained using advanced simulation algorithms and those specified in the Eurocode of actions.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Performance assessment of vibration parameters as damage indicators for bridge structures under ambient excitation

    Get PDF
    Over the years, there have been numerous efforts by researchers in quantifying structural degradation and damage from vibration measurements. Traditionally, damage detection techniques in bridges have focused on the use of modal-based damage indicators, such as frequencies, mode shapes and mode shape derivatives. However, these parameters have been shown to be sensitive to environmental and operational variations and can be difficult to accurately extract under low-level ambient excitation. Recent research has found a correlation between certain vibration parameters, such as vibration intensity, and a group of damage bridges, suggesting that vibration parameters may detect damage if extracted correctly. The present study furthers these findings by examining a number of vibration parameters as damage indicators to discern their sensitivity to various condition states of a progressively damaged bridge under ambient excitation.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    A state of the art review of modal-based damage detection in bridges: development, challenges, and solutions

    Get PDF
    Traditionally, damage identification techniques in bridges have focused on monitoring changes to modal-based Damage Sensitive Features (DSFs) due to their direct relationship with structural stiffness and their spatial information content. However, their progression to real-world applications has not been without its challenges and shortcomings, mainly stemming from: (1) environmental and operational variations; (2) inefficient utilization of machine learning algorithms for damage detection; and (3) a general over-reliance on modal-based DSFs alone. The present paper provides an in-depth review of the development of modal-based DSFs and a synopsis of the challenges they face. The paper then sets out to addresses the highlighted challenges in terms of published advancements and alternatives from recent literature.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Optimal sensor placement methods and criteria in dynamic testing: comparison and implementation on a pedestrian bridge

    Get PDF
    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is being widely used for the safety assessment and management of existing bridges and structures. One of the objectives related to SHM is to maximize the information gained from the structural testing, while keeping the number of sensors and consequently the cost of the sensor system to a minimum. The current work investigates four of the most influential optimal sensor placement (OSP) methods: the modal kinetic energy (MKE) method, the effective independence (EFI) method, the information entropy index (IEI) method and the MinMAC method. The methods were developed in MATLAB and used as input data the modal analysis results of a finite element model built in ANSYS of the Streicker Bridge, a pedestrian bridge located on the Princeton University Campus. The resulting sensor positions were estimated for a configuration with 14 sensors, and the four OSP methods were evaluated for different numbers of target sensors in terms of different OSP criteria: the determinant (DET) of the Fisher information matrix, the information entropy index (IEI) and the root mean square (RMS) of the off-diagonal entries of the MAC matrix. The study indicates that the EFI method should be chosen to estimate the optimal sensor positions as it provides the largest amount of information with a relatively low computation time.The authors are indebted to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for the funding provided through the research project BIA2017-86811-C2-1-R. All these projects are funded with FEDER funds. Authors are also indebted to the Secretaria d’ Universitats i Recerca de la Generalitat de Catalunya for the funding provided through Agaur (2017 SGR 1481).Postprint (author's final draft

    Robustness of optimal sensor methods in dynamic testing–comparison and implementation on a footbridge

    Get PDF
    One of the objectives of structural health monitoring (SHM) is to maximize the information while keeping the number of sensors, and consequently the cost of the sensor system, to a minimum. Besides, the sensor configurations must be robust in the sense that the feasibility of small errors inherent to the process must not lead to large variations in the final results. This paper presents novelties regarding the robustness evaluation to model and measurement errors of four of the most influential optimal sensor placement (OSP) methods: the modal kinetic energy (MKE) method; the effective independence (EFI) method; the information entropy index (IEI) method; and the MinMAC method. The four OSP methods were implemented on the Streicker Bridge, a footbridge located on the Princeton University Campus, to identify five mode shapes of the bridge. The mode shapes, obtained in a FE model’s modal analysis, were used as input data for the OSP analyses. The study indicates that the MKE method seems to be the most suitable method to estimate the optimal sensor positions: it provides a relatively large amount of information with the lowest computational time, and it outperforms the other three methods in terms of robustness in the usual range of number of sensors.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version
    • …