639 research outputs found

    Fast and adaptive fractal tree-based path planning for programmable bevel tip steerable needles

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    © 2016 IEEE. Steerable needles are a promising technology for minimally invasive surgery, as they can provide access to difficult to reach locations while avoiding delicate anatomical regions. However, due to the unpredictable tissue deformation associated with needle insertion and the complexity of many surgical scenarios, a real-time path planning algorithm with high update frequency would be advantageous. Real-time path planning for nonholonomic systems is commonly used in a broad variety of fields, ranging from aerospace to submarine navigation. In this letter, we propose to take advantage of the architecture of graphics processing units (GPUs) to apply fractal theory and thus parallelize real-time path planning computation. This novel approach, termed adaptive fractal trees (AFT), allows for the creation of a database of paths covering the entire domain, which are dense, invariant, procedurally produced, adaptable in size, and present a recursive structure. The generated cache of paths can in turn be analyzed in parallel to determine the most suitable path in a fraction of a second. The ability to cope with nonholonomic constraints, as well as constraints in the space of states of any complexity or number, is intrinsic to the AFT approach, rendering it highly versatile. Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations applied to needle steering in neurosurgery show that our approach can successfully compute paths in real-time, enabling complex brain navigation

    La cinerradiografía en Oftalmología

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    Sustainability-driven decision-making model: case study of fiber-reinforced concrete foundation piles

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    Currently, foundation piles for inhabited areas are often constructed using a continuous flight auger, which is a cost- and time-efficient technology that does not require stabilization of the borehole wall; the steel bar reinforcement is embedded after the concrete has been poured. However, this reinforcement operation can lead to severe construction and structural issues. Thus, several improvements to this technology have been proposed since its first application in the 20th century, such as the use of more fluid concretes. Nevertheless, steel and polymers are emerging as a potential replacement for steel bars in concrete reinforcement for several types of structures and building components, with identified and quantified benefits from a sustainability perspective. Accordingly, this paper proposes and validates a multicriteria decision-making approach designed with multidisciplinary experts within the construction field to assess the sustainability index of concrete pile foundations. The results of a case study enable us to conclude that polymeric fiber-reinforced concrete piles are the most sustainable due to their cost‚Äďstructural efficiency ratio, high durability, and minimal risks during construction. Steel fiber-reinforced concrete alternatives were also found to be more sustainable than traditional reinforced concrete. Nonetheless, these results are unrepresentative of the current practice as direct costs were found to be the main driver in the decision-making processes, while other costs and both environmental and social indicators are disregarded. This justifies the urgency to provide sustainability-driven decision-making approaches capable of objectively quantifying the satisfaction degree of economic, environmental, and social indicators involved in the analysis
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