121 research outputs found

    Hypertriglyceridaemia and low plasma HDL in a patient with apolipoprotein A-V deficiency due to a novel mutation in the APOA5 gene

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    APOA5 encodes a novel apolipoprotein (apo A-V) which appears to be a modulator of plasma triglyceride (TG). In apoA5 knock out mice plasma TG level increases almost fourfold, whereas in human APOA5 transgenic mice it decreases by 70%. Some SNPs in the APOA5 gene have been associated with variations in plasma TG in humans. In addition, hypertriglyceridaemic (HTG) patients have been identified who carried rare nonsense mutations in the APOA5 gene (Q139X and Q148X), predicted to result in apo A-V deficiency. In this study we report a 17-year-old male with high TG and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), who at the age of two had been found to have severe HTG and eruptive xanthomas suggesting a chylomicronaemia syndrome. Plasma postheparin LPL activity, however, was normal and no mutations were found in LPL and APOC2 genes. The sequence of APOA5 gene revealed that the patient was homozygous for a point mutation (c.289 C>T) in exon 4, converting glutamine codon at position 97 into a termination codon (Q97X). Apo A-V was not detected in patient's plasma, indicating that he had complete apo A-V deficiency. The administration of a low-fat and low-oligosaccharide diet, either alone or supplemented with ω-3 fatty acids, started early in life, reduced plasma TG to a great extent but had a negligible effect on plasma HDL-C. Loss of function mutations of APOA5 gene may be the cause of severe HTG in patients without mutations in LPL and APOC2 genes

    Effects of bariatric and metabolic surgical procedures on dyslipidemia: a retrospective, observational analysis.

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    Aim: Obesity and co-existing metabolic comorbidities are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality risks, generally clustered to risk factors such as dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile changes in subjects with severe obesity undergoing different procedures of bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in a real-world, clinical setting. Methods: A single-center, retrospective, observational clinical study was performed enrolling patients undergoing BMS. The primary outcome was the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: In total, 123 patients were enrolled (males 25.2% and females 74.8%) with a mean age of 48.2 ± 7.9 years and a mean BMI of 47.0 ± 9.1 kg/m2. All patients were evaluated until 16.9 ± 8.1 months after surgery. Total and HDL cholesterol did not change after surgery, while a significant reduction in triglyceride levels was recorded. Moreover, a rapid decline of both LDL and non-HDL cholesterol among follow-up visits was observed. In particular, significant inverse correlations were found between total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and the number of months elapsed after bariatric surgery. Similarly, a direct correlation was found considering HDL cholesterol. Moreover, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides significantly changed among visits after RYGB, while no changes were observed in the SG group. Finally, considering lipid-lowering therapies, the improvement in lipid asset was detected only in non-treated patients. Conclusion: This study corroborates the knowledge of the improvement in lipid profile with BMS in clinical practice. Together with sustained weight loss, the BMS approach efficiently corrects dyslipidemia, contributing to decreasing the CV risk

    A new severity score index for phenotypic classification and evaluation of responses to treatment in type I Gaucher disease

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    Gaucher disease is the first lysosomal storage disease for which specific therapy became available. Over 4800 patients have been treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Analysis of Gaucher disease registry data has outlined the clinical heterogeneity of the disease and the different responses to treatment from patient to patient, and for different organs. This variability in clinical response justifies the development of a severity score index to assess disease activity, stage and prognosis, and to quantify the effects of treatment.The \u201cGaucher Disease Severity Score Index Type I\u201d(GauSSI-I), is based on the clinical experience of the authors and an extensive literature review, including data from the International Gaucher Registry. In particular for skeletal disease, all the available scoring systems have been reviewed and compared in order to provide a skeletal scoring system that allows use of any of the different methods. Siix specific domains, in which different items were scored according to their impact on morbidity, were characterized. GauSSI-I was evaluated in 53 type I Gaucher patients treated with imiglucerase, and it was compared to the Zimran score, the only severity index score so far available. It is a reliable method for staging the severity of adult type I Gaucher disease, and it is more sensitive than the Zimran score for monitoring the response to treatment

    Hyperferritinemia and diagnosis of type 1 Gaucher disease

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    Given the difficulties in diagnosis of type 1 GD in adults because of disease heterogeneity and lack of awareness, appropriate diagnostic algorithms or flow-charts starting from non-specific findings may help. Case reports help to establish the usefulness of our proposed flowchart in patients presenting with \u201cunexplained hyperferritinemia\u201d

    Spectrum of mutations in Italian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: New results from the LIPIGEN study

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    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol that confers an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Early identification and treatment of FH patients can improve prognosis and reduce the burden of cardiovascular mortality. Aim of this study was to perform the mutational analysis of FH patients identified through a collaboration of 20 Lipid Clinics in Italy (LIPIGEN Study). Methods We recruited 1592 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of definite or probable FH according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. We performed a parallel sequencing of the major candidate genes for monogenic hypercholesterolemia (LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, APOE, LDLRAP1, STAP1). Results A total of 213 variants were detected in 1076 subjects. About 90% of them had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. More than 94% of patients carried pathogenic variants in LDLR gene, 27 of which were novel. Pathogenic variants in APOB and PCSK9 were exceedingly rare. We found 4 true homozygotes and 5 putative compound heterozygotes for pathogenic variants in LDLR gene, as well as 5 double heterozygotes for LDLR/APOB pathogenic variants. Two patients were homozygous for pathogenic variants in LDLRAP1 gene resulting in autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia. One patient was found to be heterozygous for the ApoE variant p.(Leu167del), known to confer an FH phenotype. Conclusions This study shows the molecular characteristics of the FH patients identified in Italy over the last two years. Full phenotypic characterization of these patients and cascade screening of family members is now in progress

    Refinement of the diagnostic approach for the identification of children and adolescents affected by familial hypercholesterolemia: Evidence from the LIPIGEN study

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    Background and aims: We aimed to describe the limitations of familiar hypercholesterolemia (FH) diagnosis in childhood based on the presence of the typical features of FH, such as physical sings of cholesterol accumulation and personal or family history of premature cardiovascular disease or hypercholesterolemia, comparing their prevalence in the adult and paediatric FH population, and to illustrate how additional information can lead to a more effective diagnosis of FH at a younger age.Methods: From the Italian LIPIGEN cohort, we selected 1188 (>= 18 years) and 708 (<18 years) genetically-confirmed heterozygous FH, with no missing personal FH features. The prevalence of personal and familial FH features was compared between the two groups. For a sub-group of the paediatric cohort (N = 374), data about premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in second-degree family members were also included in the evaluation.Results: The lower prevalence of typical FH features in children/adolescents vs adults was confirmed: the prevalence of tendon xanthoma was 2.1% vs 13.1%, and arcus cornealis was present in 1.6% vs 11.2% of the cohorts, respectively. No children presented clinical history of premature CHD or cerebral/peripheral vascular disease compared to 8.8% and 5.6% of adults, respectively. The prevalence of premature CHD in first-degree relatives was significantly higher in adults compared to children/adolescents (38.9% vs 19.7%). In the sub-cohort analysis, a premature CHD event in parents was reported in 63 out of 374 subjects (16.8%), but the percentage increased to 54.0% extending the evaluation also to second-degree relatives.Conclusions: In children, the typical FH features are clearly less informative than in adults. A more thorough data collection, adding information about second-degree relatives, could improve the diagnosis of FH at younger age

    Twelve Variants Polygenic Score for Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Distribution in a Large Cohort of Patients With Clinically Diagnosed Familial Hypercholesterolemia With or Without Causative Mutations

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    : Background A significant proportion of individuals clinically diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), but without any disease-causing mutation, are likely to have polygenic hypercholesterolemia. We evaluated the distribution of a polygenic risk score, consisting of 12 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-raising variants (polygenic LDL-C risk score), in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of FH. Methods and Results Within the Lipid Transport Disorders Italian Genetic Network (LIPIGEN) study, 875 patients who were FH-mutation positive (women, 54.75%; mean age, 42.47±15.00 years) and 644 patients who were FH-mutation negative (women, 54.21%; mean age, 49.73±13.54 years) were evaluated. Patients who were FH-mutation negative had lower mean levels of pretreatment LDL-C than patients who were FH-mutation positive (217.14±55.49 versus 270.52±68.59 mg/dL, P<0.0001). The mean value (±SD) of the polygenic LDL-C risk score was 1.00 (±0.18) in patients who were FH-mutation negative and 0.94 (±0.20) in patients who were FH-mutation positive (P<0.0001). In the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve for recognizing subjects characterized by polygenic hypercholesterolemia was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.56-0.62), with sensitivity and specificity being 78% and 36%, respectively, at 0.905 as a cutoff value. Higher mean polygenic LDL-C risk score levels were observed among patients who were FH-mutation negative having pretreatment LDL-C levels in the range of 150 to 350 mg/dL (150-249 mg/dL: 1.01 versus 0.91, P<0.0001; 250-349 mg/dL: 1.02 versus 0.95, P=0.0001). A positive correlation between polygenic LDL-C risk score and pretreatment LDL-C levels was observed among patients with FH independently of the presence of causative mutations. Conclusions This analysis confirms the role of polymorphisms in modulating LDL-C levels, even in patients with genetically confirmed FH. More data are needed to support the use of the polygenic score in routine clinical practice
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