1,766 research outputs found

    Beam test results of a 16 ps timing system based on ultra-fast silicon detectors

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    In this paper we report on the timing resolution obtained in a beam test with pions of 180 GeV/c momentum at CERN for the first production of 45 μm thick Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are based on the Low- Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) design, employing n-on-p silicon sensors with internal charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction. The UFSD used in this test had a pad area of 1.7 mm2. The gain was measured to vary between 5 and 70 depending on the sensor bias voltage. The experimental setup included three UFSD and a fast trigger consisting of a quartz bar readout by a SiPM. The timing resolution was determined by doing Gaussian fits to the time-of-flight of the particles between one or more UFSD and the trigger counter. For a single UFSD the resolution was measured to be 34 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 27 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V. For the combination of 3 UFSD the timing resolution was 20 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 16 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V

    Timing layers, 4- and 5-dimension tracking

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    The combination of precision space and time information in particle tracking, the so-called 4D tracking, is being considered in the upgrade of the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb experiments at the High-Luminosity LHC, set to start data taking in 2024–2025. Regardless of the type of solution chosen, space-time tracking brings benefits to the performance of the detectors by reducing the background and sharpening the resolution; it improves tracking performances and simplifies tracks combinatorics. Space-time tracking also allows investigating new physics channels, for example, it opens up the possibilities of new searches in long-living particles by measuring accurately the time of flight between the production and the decay vertexes. The foreseen applications of 4D tracking in experiments with very high acquisition rates, for example at HL-LHC, add one more dimension to the problem, increasing dramatically the complexity of the read-out system and that of the whole detector design: we call 5D tracking the application of 4D tracking in high rate environments

    4-Dimensional Tracking with Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors

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    The evolution of particle detectors has always pushed the technological limit in order to provide enabling technologies to researchers in all fields of science. One archetypal example is the evolution of silicon detectors, from a system with a few channels 30 years ago, to the tens of millions of independent pixels currently used to track charged particles in all major particle physics experiments. Nowadays, silicon detectors are ubiquitous not only in research laboratories but in almost every high- tech apparatus, from portable phones to hospitals. In this contribution, we present a new direction in the evolution of silicon detectors for charge particle tracking, namely the inclusion of very accurate timing information. This enhancement of the present silicon detector paradigm is enabled by the inclusion of controlled low gain in the detector response, therefore increasing the detector output signal sufficiently to make timing measurement possible. After providing a short overview of the advantage of this new technology, we present the necessary conditions that need to be met for both sensor and readout electronics in order to achieve 4-dimensional tracking. In the last section we present the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of our research path

    The 4D pixel challenge

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    Is it possible to design a detector able to concurrently measure time and position with high precision? This question is at the root of the research and development of silicon sensors presented in this contribution. Silicon sensors are the most common type of particle detectors used for charged particle tracking, however, their rather poor time resolution limits their use as precise timing detectors. A few years ago we have picked up the gantlet of enhancing the remarkable position resolution of silicon sensors with precise timing capability. I will be presenting our results on the following pages

    Design optimization of ultra-fast silicon detector

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    Low-Gain Avalanche Diodes (LGAD) are silicon detectors with output signals that are about a factor of 10 larger than those of traditional sensors. In this paper we analyze how the design of LGAD can be optimized to exploit their increased output signal to reach optimum timing performances. Our simulations show that these sensors, the so-called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD), will be able to reach a time resolution factor of 10 better than that of traditional silicon sensors

    Temperature dependence of the response of ultra fast silicon detectors

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    The Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD) are a novel concept of silicon detectors based on the Low Gain Avalanche Diode (LGAD) technology, which are able to obtain time resolution of the order of a few tens of picoseconds. First prototypes with different geometries (pads/pixels/strips), thickness (300 and 50μm), and gain (between 5 and 20) have been recently designed and manufactured by CNM (Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, Barcelona) and FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento). Several measurements on these devices have been performed in the laboratory and in beam test and dependence of the gain on the temperature has been observed. Some of the first measurements will be shown (leakage current, breakdown voltage, gain, and time resolution on the 300μm from FBK and gain on the 50μm-thick sensor from CNM) and a comparison with the theoretically predicted trend will be discussed

    Innovative thin silicon detectors for monitoring of therapeutic proton beams: preliminary beam tests

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    To fully exploit the physics potentials of particle therapy in delivering doses with high accuracy and selectivity, charged particle therapy needs further improvement. To this scope, a multidisciplinary project (MoVeIT) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) aims at translating research in charged particle therapy into clinical outcomes. New models in the treatment planning system are being developed and validated, using dedicated devices for beam characterization and monitoring in radiobiological and clinical irradiations. Innovative silicon detectors with an internal gain layer (LGAD) represent a promising option, overcoming the limits of currently used ionization chambers. Two devices are being developed: one to directly count individual protons at high rates, exploiting the large signal-to-noise ratio and fast collection time in small thicknesses (1ns in 50 μm) of LGADs, the second to measure the beam energy with time-of-flight techniques, using LGADs optimized for excellent time resolutions (Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors, UFSDs). The preliminary results of the first beam tests with a therapeutic beam will be presented and discussed

    Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors for 4D tracking

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    In this contribution, we review the progress towards the development of a novel type of silicon detector suited for tracking with a picosecond timing resolution, the so-called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors. The goal is to create a new family of particle detectors merging excellent position and timing resolution with GHz counting capabilities, very low material budget, radiation resistance, fine granularity, low power, insensitivity to a magnetic field, and affordability. We aim to achieve concurrent precisions of ∼ 10 ps and ∼ 10 μm with a 50 μm thick sensor. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, which are silicon detectors with an internal multiplication mechanism so that they generate a signal which is factor ∼10 larger than standard silicon detectors. The basic design of UFSD consists of a thin silicon sensor with moderate internal gain and pixelated electrodes coupled to full custom VLSI chip. An overview of test beam data on-time resolution and the impact on this measurement of radiation doses at the level of those expected at HL-LHC is presented

    A new timing detector for the CT-PPS project

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    The CT-PPS detector will be installed close to the beamline on both sides of CMS, 200 m downstream the interaction point. This detector will measure forward scattered protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive hadron physics and Central Exclusive Production. The main components of the CT-PPS detector are a silicon tracking system and a timing system. In this contribution, we present the proposal of an innovative solution for the timing system, based on Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD is a novel concept of silicon detectors potentially able to obtain the necessary time resolution (∼20 ps on the proton arrival time). The use of UFSD has also other attractive features as its material budget is small and the pixel geometries can be tailored to the precise physics distribution of protons. UFSD prototypes for CT-PPS have been designed by CNM (Barcelona) and FBK (Trento): we will present the status of the sensor productions and of the low-noise front-end electronics currently under development and test

    Signal formation in irradiated silicon detectors

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    In this paper, we present an initial study on the effects induced by radiation on the signal generated by a minimum ionizing particle in a silicon detector. The results are obtained by implementing in the simulation program Weightfield2 (WF2) charge carrier trapping and non-linear distribution of the electric field. Results of sample simulations are presented, along with a discussion of the limitations of the current approach and ideas for future improvements
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