334 research outputs found

    The Effect of Choice Set Size and Other Choice Architectures on Decisions to Volunteer

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    This thesis adds to the existing literature on the too-much-choice effect. The effect documents a range of negative consequences as a result of choosing from extensive choice sets, such as increased decision difficulty, increased deferment likelihood, and increased feelings of uncertainty, regret and dissatisfaction with chosen options. The research presented in this thesis investigates the effect of choice amount in the novel domain of volunteering, specifically which organisation to volunteer for. This is an experiential choice rather than the material choices typically studied. The first three field studies focussed on real volunteering recruitment ‘events’ to gain preliminary insight into this new context. Study 1 demonstrated that an opt-out request for future contact consent elicited the greatest compliance. Study 2 found that only around half of the students that had intended to volunteer at the beginning of a year had done so by the end, but for those that had done so, volunteering was a positive and beneficial experience. Study 3 demonstrated the effectiveness of volunteer ‘events’ for the recruitment of volunteers, despite there being an extensive number of organisations present. Five further studies used an experimental methodology and focussed on choosing from computer based choice sets to simulate online volunteer recruitment. Study 4 found evidence of the too-much-choice effect. The greater the number of options looked at on a real volunteering website, the greater was the likelihood of decision deferment. This was mediated by decision difficulty. Study 5 replicated these findings using a more controlled experimental design and hypothetical organisations. Studies 6, 7 and 8 investigated potential choice architectural moderators of the too-much-choice effect. Option categorisation facilitated students’ decisions but not non-students (Study 6), deferment likelihood was reduced if options were presented in a ‘box’ format rather than a ‘list’ format (Study 7) and option familiarity appeared to have no effects on decisions (Study 8). Overall, this research demonstrates that extensive choice can be problematic in the novel context of volunteering and it begins to investigate choice architectures that have the potential to help people deal with extensive choice. The limitations and implications of these findings in relation to volunteer recruitment are discussed as well as possible avenues for future research

    Quantifying the Rise and Fall of Complexity in Closed Systems: The Coffee Automaton

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    In contrast to entropy, which increases monotonically, the "complexity" or "interestingness" of closed systems seems intuitively to increase at first and then decrease as equilibrium is approached. For example, our universe lacked complex structures at the Big Bang and will also lack them after black holes evaporate and particles are dispersed. This paper makes an initial attempt to quantify this pattern. As a model system, we use a simple, two-dimensional cellular automaton that simulates the mixing of two liquids ("coffee" and "cream"). A plausible complexity measure is then the Kolmogorov complexity of a coarse-grained approximation of the automaton's state, which we dub the "apparent complexity." We study this complexity measure, and show analytically that it never becomes large when the liquid particles are non-interacting. By contrast, when the particles do interact, we give numerical evidence that the complexity reaches a maximum comparable to the "coffee cup's" horizontal dimension. We raise the problem of proving this behavior analytically

    Virtual Betta

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    Elevating the Voices for All Learners through Shared Stories of Science Learning

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    This study examines the science learning experiences across the lifespan of two groups of college students: adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities in a post-secondary inclusive program, and adults in a preservice secondary education teacher candidate program. Data, in the form of personal narrative science stories were collected using a paired-interview approach in which students from each group interviewed one another about their science learning across their lifespans, and recorded responses using an online form. Across the stories, several clear themes emerged. Similarities and differences were found across and within the groups and are shared in a narrative format. Trends that emerged both across and within groups are shared, and recommendations are made for current and future teachers for best practices in teaching science to all students, including those with a variety of disabilities

    Helheten Àr större Àn summan av delarna- En kvalitativ studie om det drogförebyggande arbetet inom grundskolan samt instÀllningar och attityder till införandet av slumpmÀssiga, frivilliga drogtester

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    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka vilket drogförebyggande arbete som görs inom grundskolan idag samt vilka attityder skolsköterskor, kuratorer och drogsamordnare har till införandet av slumpmĂ€ssiga, frivilliga drogtester i skolan. Med studiens syfte som utgĂ„ngspunkt valdes kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer som metod för insamling av empiriskt material. Teorier som vi har valt att anvĂ€nda oss av för att förklara det fenomen vi undersökt Ă€r primĂ€r och sekundĂ€r prevention, teorin om risk- och skyddsfaktorer samt systemteori. Resultatet visar att det idag saknas en ”röd trĂ„d” i det drogförebyggande arbetet inom skolan. Det drogförebyggande arbetet pĂ„ skolorna bygger frĂ€mst pĂ„ engagemang och intresse hos enskilda lĂ€rare eller elevvĂ„rdspersonal som arbetar pĂ„ skolan. Det finns idag nĂ„gon form av ANT-undervisning (alkohol, narkotika, tobak) pĂ„ alla de skolor vi varit i kontakt med. Andra metoder som nĂ€mnts under intervjuerna Ă€r SET (Social och Emotionell TrĂ€ning), ÖPP (Örebro Preventions Program) och Livskunskap. Samtliga intervjupersoner Ă€r negativa till ett eventuellt införande av slumpmĂ€ssiga, frivilliga drogtester i skolan. Flera av intervjupersonerna uttrycker en oro över vilka konsekvenser ett sĂ„dant beslut kan medföra. Oro över att eleverna och i vissa fall Ă€ven förĂ€ldrarnas förtroende för skolan minskar nĂ€r man inför drogtester. Det rĂ„der Ă€ven tveksamhet kring hur pass reell frivilligheten i drogtesterna verkligen Ă€r. Trots att det drogförebyggande arbetet pĂ„ skolorna ser olika ut sĂ„ har samtliga intervjupersoner en enhetlig syn pĂ„ hur skolans arbete med alkohol, narkotika och tobak bör se ut. Samtliga intervjupersoner menade att fokus inte bör ligga pĂ„ drogförebyggande arbete i sig utan fokus bör ligga pĂ„ att förebygga problembeteenden i allmĂ€nhet. Nyckelord: förebyggande arbete, drogförebyggande arbete, skolan förebygger, preventiv, drogtester, drogtester i skolan, evidens, evidensbaserad, primĂ€r och sekundĂ€r prevention, risk- och skyddsfaktorer, Systemteori, Landskrona kommun drogtester.This study aims at examining which type of drug prevention programs exist in compulsory schools today and what school nurses, counsellors and drug coordinators attitudes are towards Landskrona Kommuns decision to introduce random voluntary drug testing in schools. With the aim of this study as a starting point we chose to take a qualitative approach to gathering empirical data through semi structured interviews. Theories we have used to give a better account of the phenomenon we have studied are: Primary and Secondary Prevention Theory, Risk and Protective Factors Theory and Systems Theory. The study shows that drug prevention programs used in compulsory schools today vary both within schools and between schools. The drug prevention programs in the schools we examined are mainly based on the degree of interest and commitment individual teachers, school nurses and counsellors have to drug prevention. All the schools we examined have some form of time set aside in their curriculum intended to supply factual information in regards to the uses of alcohol, narcotics and tobacco. Other programs that were mentioned during the interviews were SET (Social and Emotional Training), ÖPP (Örebro Prevention Program) and Livskunskap (also a form of social and emotional training). All of the respondents are opposed to introducing random voluntary drug tests in schools. Several of the respondents express a certain degree of concern about the consequences a decision like that might have. Concerns that the trust between pupils, and in some cases, even their parents and the school might decrease if drug tests are introduced in schools. Another concern is to what real extent the drug tests will be voluntary. Despite the fact that the drug prevention programs vary within and between these schools all of the respondents had a uniform view on what drug prevention programs should focus on. Drug prevention in schools should not focus on drugs as the main problem but on problem behavior in general. Keywords: drug prevention, drug testing schools, evidence based practice, Primary and Secondary Prevention Theory, Risk and Protective Factors Theory and System Theory

    The Virtual Beta: An Interactive Fish Using Java Script and CSS

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    My first version of the fish was written in C, because it was the language I was studying at the time. I wanted something that more people could view easily, however and one that could manage images more simply than C. I ended up choosing ]avaScript. At first I tried to translate my C program directly to ]avaScript, but I soon found this was too complex a task

    Development and pilot evaluation of a personalized decision support intervention for low risk prostate cancer patients.

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    ObjectivesDevelopment and pilot evaluation of a personalized decision support intervention to help men with early-stage prostate cancer choose among active surveillance, surgery, and radiation.MethodsWe developed a decision aid featuring long-term survival and side effects data, based on focus group input and stakeholder endorsement. We trained premedical students to administer the intervention to newly diagnosed men with low-risk prostate cancer seen at the University of California, San Francisco. Before the intervention, and after the consultation with a urologist, we administered the Decision Quality Instrument for Prostate Cancer (DQI-PC). We hypothesized increases in two knowledge items from the DQI-PC: How many men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer will eventually die of prostate cancer? How much would waiting 3 months to make a treatment decision affect chances of survival? Correct answers were: "Most will die of something else" and "A little or not at all."ResultsThe development phase involved 6 patients, 1 family member, 2 physicians, and 5 other health care providers. In our pilot test, 57 men consented, and 44 received the decision support intervention and completed knowledge surveys at both timepoints. Regarding the two knowledge items of interest, before the intervention, 35/56 (63%) answered both correctly, compared to 36/44 (82%) after the medical consultation (P = .04 by chi-square test).ConclusionsThe intervention was associated with increased patient knowledge. Data from this pilot have guided the development of a larger scale randomized clinical trial to improve decision quality in men with prostate cancer being treated in community settings
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