205 research outputs found

    Relationship between Classroom Climate, Student Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in the High School Math Classroom

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    There is a variety of past research regarding the relationship between the mathematics classroom climate and student learning. More specifically, many studies look at how the classroom climate may influence student self-efficacy in math. Furthermore, another quantity of research supports that there is a link between student math self-efficacy and the student’s achievement in the particular subject. The goal of this study is to see if students’ perceptions of their math classroom climate are related to their self-efficacies towards the subject, which therefore affects their achievement in math. It is hypothesized that there is a relationship between the classroom environment and student self-efficacy; furthermore, it is hypothesized this relationship contributes to student achievement in math. Participants were 83 high school students attending a public suburban school outside of Boston in the winter of 2014. Students completed Fast’s measure assessing classroom climate, math self-efficacy and achievement. A significant relationship was found between classroom climate and student self-efficacy, with mastery goal structure being the most significant aspect of classroom climate that contributes to this relationship. A significant relationship was found between self-efficacy and achievement, but boys had higher self-efficacies while girls had higher achievement

    Does preliminary optimisation of an anatomically correct skull-brain model using simple simulants produce clinically realistic ballistic injury fracture patterns?

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    Ballistic head injury remains a significant threat to military personnel. Studying such injuries requires a model that can be used with a military helmet. This paper describes further work on a skull-brain model using skulls made from three different polyurethane plastics and a series of skull ‘fills’ to simulate brain (3, 5, 7 and 10% gelatine by mass and PermaGel™). The models were subjected to ballistic impact from 7.62 × 39 mm mild steel core bullets. The first part of the work compares the different polyurethanes (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 708 m/s), and the second part compares the different fills (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 680 m/s). The impact events were filmed using high speed cameras. The resulting fracture patterns in the skulls were reviewed and scored by five clinicians experienced in assessing penetrating head injury. In over half of the models, one or more assessors felt aspects of the fracture pattern were close to real injury. Limitations of the model include the skull being manufactured in two parts and the lack of a realistic skin layer. Further work is ongoing to address these

    Utility of Nontraditional Risk Markers in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment

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    AbstractBackgroundThe improvement in discrimination gained by adding nontraditional cardiovascular risk markers cited in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk estimator (pooled cohort equation [PCE]) is untested.ObjectivesThis study assessed the predictive accuracy and improvement in reclassification gained by the addition of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, the ankle–brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, and family history (FH) of ASCVD to the PCE in participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).MethodsThe PCE was calibrated (cPCE) and used for this analysis. The Cox proportional hazards survival model, Harrell’s C statistics, and net reclassification improvement analyses were used. ASCVD was defined as myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease–related death, or fatal or nonfatal stroke.ResultsOf 6,814 MESA participants not prescribed statins at baseline, 5,185 had complete data and were included in this analysis. Their mean age was 61 years; 53.1% were women, 9.8% had diabetes, and 13.6% were current smokers. After 10 years of follow-up, 320 (6.2%) ASCVD events occurred. CAC score, ABI, and FH were independent predictors of ASCVD events in the multivariable Cox models. CAC score modestly improved the Harrell’s C statistic (0.74 vs. 0.76; p = 0.04); ABI, hsCRP levels, and FH produced no improvement in Harrell’s C statistic when added to the cPCE.ConclusionsCAC score, ABI, and FH were independent predictors of ASCVD events. CAC score modestly improved the discriminative ability of the cPCE compared with other nontraditional risk markers

    Piano Recital - Studio of Dr. Mayumi Matzen

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    Piano recital at the studio of Dr. Mayumi Matzen.https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/music_programs/1069/thumbnail.jp

    Enhanced recovery in colorectal surgery: a multicentre study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Major colorectal surgery usually requires a hospital stay of more than 12 days. Inadequate pain management, intestinal dysfunction and immobilisation are the main factors associated with delay in recovery. The present work assesses the short and medium term results achieved by an enhanced recovery program based on previously published protocols.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This prospective study, performed at 12 Spanish hospitals in 2008 and 2009, involved 300 patients. All patients underwent elective colorectal resection for cancer following an enhanced recovery program. The main elements of this program were: preoperative advice, no colon preparation, provision of carbohydrate-rich drinks one day prior and on the morning of surgery, goal directed fluid administration, body temperature control during surgery, avoiding drainages and nasogastric tubes, early mobilisation, and the taking of oral fluids in the early postoperative period. Perioperative morbidity and mortality data were collected and the length of hospital stay and protocol compliance recorded.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The median age of the patients was 68 years. Fifty-two % of the patients were women. The distribution of patients by ASA class was: I 10%, II 50% and III 40%. Sixty-four % of interventions were laparoscopic; 15% required conversion to laparotomy. The majority of patients underwent sigmoidectomy or right hemicolectomy. The overall compliance to protocol was approximately 65%, but varied widely in its different components. The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 6 days. Some 3% of patients were readmitted to hospital after discharge; some 7% required repeat surgery during their initial hospitalisation or after readmission. The most common complications were surgical (24%), followed by septic (11%) or other medical complications (10%). Three patients (1%) died during follow-up. Some 31% of patients suffered symptoms that delayed their discharge, the most common being vomiting or nausea (12%), dyspnoea (7%) and fever (5%).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The following of this enhanced recovery program posed no risk to patients in terms of morbidity, mortality and shortened the length of their hospital stay. Overall compliance to protocol was 65%. The following of this program was of benefit to patients and reduces costs by shortening the length of hospital stay. The implantation of such programmes is therefore highly recommended.</p

    Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy, Feasibility and Client Preference for Rapid Oral Fluid-Based Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Rural India

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    BACKGROUND: Oral fluid-based rapid tests are promising for improving HIV diagnosis and screening. However, recent reports from the United States of false-positive results with the oral OraQuick® ADVANCE HIV1/2 test have raised concerns about their performance in routine practice. We report a field evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy, client preference, and feasibility for the oral fluid-based OraQuick® Rapid HIV1/2 test in a rural hospital in India. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted in 450 consenting participants with suspected HIV infection in rural India. The objectives were to evaluate performance, client preference and feasibility of the OraQuick® Rapid HIV-1/2 tests. Two Oraquick® Rapid HIV1/2 tests (oral fluid and finger stick) were administered in parallel with confirmatory ELISA/Western Blot (reference standard). Pre- and post-test counseling and face to face interviews were conducted to determine client preference. Of the 450 participants, 146 were deemed to be HIV sero-positive using the reference standard (seropositivity rate of 32% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28%, 37%)). The OraQuick test on oral fluid specimens had better performance with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 99, 100), as compared to the OraQuick test on finger stick specimens with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100), and a specificity of 99.7% (95% CI 98.4, 99.9). The OraQuick oral fluid-based test was preferred by 87% of the participants for first time testing and 60% of the participants for repeat testing. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In a rural Indian hospital setting, the OraQuick® Rapid- HIV1/2 test was found to be highly accurate. The oral fluid-based test performed marginally better than the finger stick test. The oral OraQuick test was highly preferred by participants. In the context of global efforts to scale-up HIV testing, our data suggest that oral fluid-based rapid HIV testing may work well in rural, resource-limited settings

    Signs of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in relation to risk factor distribution in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR)

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    AIMS: Modern imaging technology allows us the visualization of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. The prevalence, quantity, and risk factors for CAC were compared between two studies with similar imaging protocols but different source populations: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR). METHODS AND RESULTS: The measured CAC in 2220 MESA participants were compared with those in 3,126 HNR participants with the inclusion criteria such as age 45-75 years, Caucasian race, and free of baseline cardiovascular disease. Despite similar mean levels of CAC of 244.6 among participants in MESA and of 240.3 in HNR (P = 0.91), the prevalence of CAC &gt; 0 was lower in MESA (52.6%) compared with HNR (67.0%) with a prevalence rate ratio of CAC &gt; 0 of 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.85] after adjustment for known risk factors. Consequently, among participants with CAC &gt; 0, the participants in MESA tended to have higher levels of CAC than those in HNR (ratio of CAC levels: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.19-1.63), since many HNR participants have small (near zero) CAC values. CONCLUSIONS: The CAC prevalence was lower in the United States (MESA) cohort than in the German (HNR) cohort, which may be explained by more favourable risk factor levels among the MESA participants. The predictors for increased levels of CAC were, however, similar in both cohorts with the exception that male gender, blood pressure, and body mass index were more strongly associated in the HNR cohort

    Expression of the NH2-Terminal Fragment of RasGAP in Pancreatic β-Cells Increases Their Resistance to Stresses and Protects Mice From Diabetes

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    OBJECTIVE: Our laboratory has previously established in vitro that a caspase-generated RasGAP NH(2)-terminal moiety, called fragment N, potently protects cells, including insulinomas, from apoptotic stress. We aimed to determine whether fragment N can increase the resistance of pancreatic beta-cells in a physiological setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A mouse line, called rat insulin promoter (RIP)-N, was generated that bears a transgene containing the rat insulin promoter followed by the cDNA-encoding fragment N. The histology, functionality, and resistance to stress of RIP-N islets were then assessed. RESULTS: Pancreatic beta-cells of RIP-N mice express fragment N, activate Akt, and block nuclear factor kappaB activity without affecting islet cell proliferation or the morphology and cellular composition of islets. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests revealed that RIP-N mice control their glycemia similarly as wild-type mice throughout their lifespan. Moreover, islets isolated from RIP-N mice showed normal glucose-induced insulin secretory capacities. They, however, displayed increased resistance to apoptosis induced by a series of stresses including inflammatory cytokines, fatty acids, and hyperglycemia. RIP-N mice were also protected from multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and this was associated with reduced in vivo beta-cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fragment N efficiently increases the overall resistance of beta-cells to noxious stimuli without interfering with the physiological functions of the cells. Fragment N and the pathway it regulates represent, therefore, a potential target for the development of antidiabetes tools
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