2,177 research outputs found

    Spitzer spectroscopy of circumstellar disks in the 5 Myr old upper Scorpius OB association

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    We present mid-infrared spectra between 5.2 and 38 μm for 26 disk-bearing members of the ~5 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find clear evidence for changes in the spectral characteristics of dust emission between the early-type (B+A) and late-type (K+M) infrared excess stars. The early-type members exhibit featureless continuum excesses that become apparent redward of ~8 μm. In contrast, 10 and 20 μm silicate features or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission are present in all but one of the late-type excess members of Upper Scorpius. The strength of silicate emission among late-type Upper Scorpius members is spectral-type dependent, with the most prominent features being associated with K5-M2-type stars. By fitting the spectral energy distributions (SED) of a representative sample of low-mass stars with accretion disk models, we find that the SEDs are consistent with models having inner disk radii ranging from ~0.2 to 1.2 AU. Complementary high-resolution (R ~ 33,000) optical (λλ4800-9200) spectra for the Upper Scorpius excess stars were examined for signatures of gaseous accretion. Of the 35 infrared excess stars identified in Upper Scorpius, only seven (all late-type) exhibit definitive signatures of accretion. Mass-accretion rates (M) for these stars were estimated to range from 10^–11 to 10^–8.9 M⊙ yr^–1. Compared to Class II sources in Taurus-Auriga, the disk population in Upper Scorpius exhibits reduced levels of near- and mid-infrared excess emission and an order of magnitude lower mass-accretion rates. These results suggest that the disk structure has changed significantly over the 2-4 Myr in age separating these two stellar populations. The ubiquity of depleted inner disks in the Upper Scorpius excess sample implies that such disks are a common evolutionary pathway that persists for some time

    An ALMA Continuum Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

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    We present ALMA 880 micron continuum observations of 20 K and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low mass stars (0.1-1.6 Msun) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 micron dust continuum at >3 sigma with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 Mearth. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ~ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ~ 1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3sigma. For stellar masses between 0.49 Msun and 1.6 Msun, the mean dust mass in disks is lower in Upper Sco relative to Taurus by Delta log Mdust = 0.44 +/-0.26.Comment: Accepted by Ap

    Near-Infrared Photometric Variability of Stars Toward the Orion A Molecular Cloud

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    We present an analysis of J, H, and K time series photometry obtained with the southern 2MASS telescope over a 0.84 x 6 deg^2 region centered near the Orion Nebula Cluster. These data are used to establish the near-infrared variability properties of pre-main-sequence stars in Orion on time scales of 1-36 days, 2 months, and 2 years. A total of 1235 variable stars are identified, ~93% of which are associated with the Orion A molecular cloud. The variable stars exhibit a diversity of photometric behavior with time, including cyclic fluctuations, aperiodic day-to-day fluctuations, eclipses, slow drifts in brightness over one month, colorless variability, stars that become redder as they fade, and stars that become bluer as they fade. We examine rotational modulation of cool and hot star spots, variable obscuration from an inner circumstellar disk, and changes in the mass accretion rate and other properties in a circumstellar disk as possible origins of the variability. Cool spots can explain the variability characteristics in 56-77% of the stars, while the properties of the photometric fluctuations are more consistent with hot spots or extinction changes in at least 23% of the stars, and with variations in the disk mass accretion rate or inner disk radius in 1% of our sample. However, differences between the details of the observations and the details of variability predicted these models suggest either that another variability mechanism not considered here may be operative, or that the observed variability represents the net results of several of these phenomena. Analysis of the star count data indicates that the ONC is part of a larger area of enhanced stellar surface density which extends over a 0.4 x 2.4 deg^2 (3.4 x 20 pc^2) region containing 2700 stars brighter than K=14. (abridged version)Comment: 75 pages with 27 figures; to appear in AJ; see also http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~jmc/variables/orio

    Periodic Photometric Variability in the Becklin-Neugebauer Object

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    The Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is a well-studied optically invisible, infrared-bright young stellar object, thought to be an intermediate-mass protostar. We report here that BN exhibited nearly-sinusoidal periodic variability at the near-infrared H- and Ks-bands during a one month observing campaign in 2000 March/April. The period was 8.28 days and the peak-to-peak amplitude ~0.2 mag. Plausible mechanisms for producing the observed variability characteristics are explored.Comment: Accepted by ApJ Letter

    Recent Results from CARMA

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    The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a heterogeneous array of 23 telescopes designed to operate in the 1 cm, 3 mm, and 1 mm atmospheric windows. The array is a merger of the eight 3.5 m antennas from the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Array, the nine 6.1 m antennas from the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland array, and the six 10.4 m antennas from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). As a signature of Tom Phillips’ legacy, three of the CARMA antennas are from the original 3-element OVRO interferometer built under Tom’s leadership in the early 1980’s. Recent CARMA results are presented on the structure of circumstellar disks and the molecular gas distribution in M 51

    Orientation‐Averaged Amplitude of the One‐Quantum Term in the Neutron Scattering Law for Molecular Gases

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    The amplitude of the one‐quantum term in the scattering law for coherent scattering of neutrons by molecular gases is calculated using a generating‐function approach. The phase factor exp (iκ⋅b) is averaged jointly with the amplitude factor (κ⋅γν) (κ⋅γν′), as opposed to the more common technique of approximating the joint average by the product of the average of each factor. Results of example calculations show that the correction is of the same magnitude as the result of the conventional calculation.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/69801/2/JCPSA6-46-2-465-1.pd

    Large-Scale Asymmetries in the Transitional Disks of SAO 206462 and SR 21

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    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and 12CO J=6-5 spectral line emission, of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disks structures with a ring and an azimuthal gaussian, where the azimuthal gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra & Lin (2013). Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHa 330, these are low-contrast (< 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21 respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 MJup of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (~20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.Comment: ApJL, in press. 6 pages, 3 figures, 2 table

    ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

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    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and 12^{12}CO JJ = 3-2 line fluxes of disks around low-mass (0.141.660.14-1.66 MM_{\odot}) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, 5 are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area (40\lesssim 40 au), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least 1000\sim1000 relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of MdustM1.67±0.37M_{\mathrm{dust}}\propto M_*^{1.67\pm0.37}. Disk dust masses in Upper Sco are compared to those measured in the younger Taurus star-forming region to constrain the evolution of disk dust mass. We find that the difference in the mean of log(Mdust/M)\log(M_{\mathrm{dust}}/M_*) between Taurus and Upper Sco is 0.64±0.090.64\pm0.09, such that Mdust/MM_{\mathrm{dust}}/M_* is lower in Upper Sco by a factor of 4.5\sim4.5.Comment: 18 pages of text, 11 Figures, 5 Tables. Published in Ap

    Near-Infrared Photometric Variability of Stars Toward the Chamaeleon I Molecular Cloud

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    We present the results of a J, H, and K_s photometric monitoring campaign of a 0.72 x 6 sq deg. area centered on the Chamaeleon I star forming region. Data were obtained on 15 separate nights over a 4 month time interval using the 2MASS South telescope. Out of a total of 34,539 sources brighter than the photometric completeness limits (J=16.0, H=15.2, K_s=14.8), 95 exhibit near-infrared variability in one or more bands. The variables can be grouped into a population of bright, red objects that are associated with the Chamaeleon I association, and a population of faint, blue variables that are dispersed over the full 6 deg of the survey and are likely field stars or older pre-main-sequence stars unrelated to the present-day Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. Ten new candidate members of Chamaeleon I, including 8 brown dwarf candidates, have been identified based on variability and/or near-infrared excess emission in the J-H vs. H-K_s color-color-diagram. We also provide a compendium of astrometry and J, H, and K_s photometry for previously identified members and candidate members of Chamaeleon I.Comment: To appear in AJ; see http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~jmc/variables/cham1

    Millimeter Imaging of MWC 758: Probing the Disk Structure and Kinematics

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    We investigate the structure and kinematics of the circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae star MWC 758 using high-resolution observations of the ^(12)CO (3-2) and dust continuum emission at the wavelengths of 0.87 and 3.3 mm. We find that the dust emission peaks at an orbital radius of about 100 AU, while the CO intensity has a central peak coincident with the position of the star. The CO emission is in agreement with a disk in Keplerian rotation around a 2.0 M_⊙ star, confirming that MWC 758 is indeed an intermediate-mass star. By comparing the observation with theoretical disk models, we derive that the disk surface density Σ(r) steeply increases from 40 to 100 AU and decreases exponentially outward. Within 40 AU, the disk has to be optically thin in the continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths to explain the observed dust morphology, though our observations lack the angular resolution and sensitivity required to constrain the surface density on these spatial scales. The surface density distribution in MWC 758 disk is similar to that of "transition" disks, though no disk clearing has been previously inferred from the analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED). Moreover, the asymmetries observed in the dust and CO emission suggest that the disk may be gravitationally perturbed by a low-mass companion orbiting within a radius of 30 AU. Our results emphasize that SEDs alone do not provide a complete picture of disk structure and that high-resolution millimeter-wave images are essential to reveal the structure of the cool disk mid-plane
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