27 research outputs found

    A review of postharvest approaches to reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination of foods

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    Contamination of agricultural and food products by some fungi species that produce mycotoxins can result in unsafe food and feed. Mycotoxins have been demonstrated to have disease-causing activities, including carcinogenicity, immune toxicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Most of mycotoxins are heat stable and cannot be easily destroyed by conventional thermal food processing or domestic cooking methods. Postharvest approaches to prevent growth of mycotoxin-producing fungi and detoxify mycotoxins from contaminated food are important topics in food safety research. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been applied to prevent fungal growth or mycotoxin production, or to reduce mycotoxin content in the postharvest period and contribute toward mitigating against the effects of mycotoxins on human health. This literature review aims to evaluate postharvest approaches that have been applied to control both fungi growth and mycotoxin content in food and discuss their potential for upscaling to industrial scale

    DHA-Induced Perturbation of Human Serum Metabolome. Role of the Food Matrix and Co-Administration of Oat β-glucan and Anthocyanins

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    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been reported to have a positive impact on many diet-related disease risks, including metabolic syndrome. Although many DHA-enriched foods have been marketed, the impact of different food matrices on the effect of DHA is unknown. As well, the possibility to enhance DHA effectiveness through the co-administration of other bioactives has seldom been considered. We evaluated DHA effects on the serum metabolome administered to volunteers at risk of metabolic syndrome as an ingredient of three different foods. Foods were enriched with DHA alone or in combination with oat beta-glucan or anthocyanins and were administered to volunteers for 4 weeks. Serum samples collected at the beginning and end of the trial were analysed by NMR-based metabolomics. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were used to characterize modifications in the serum metabolome and to evaluate bioactive-bioactive and bioactive-food matrix interactions. DHA administration induces metabolome perturbation that is influenced by the food matrix and the co-presence of other bioactives. In particular, when co-administered with oat beta-glucan, DHA induces a strong rearrangement in the lipoprotein profile of the subjects. The observed modifications are consistent with clinical results and indicate that metabolomics represents a possible strategy to choose the most appropriate food matrices for bioactive enrichmen

    A Dietary Intervention of Bioactive Enriched Foods Aimed at Adults at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Protocol and Results from PATHWAY-27 Pilot Study

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    Around a quarter of the global adult population have metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and diabetes. Docosahexaenoic acid, oat beta-glucan and grape anthocyanins have been shown to be effective in reducing MetS risk factors when administered as isolated compounds, but their effect when administered as bioactive-enriched foods has not been evaluated. Objective: The overall aim of the PATHWAY-27 project was to evaluate the effectiveness of bioactive-enriched food consumption on improving risk factors of MetS. A pilot study was conducted to assess which of five bioactive combinations provided within three different food matrices (bakery, dairy or egg) were the most effective in adult volunteers. The trial also evaluated the feasibility of production, consumer acceptability and gastrointestinal tolerance of the bioactive-enriched food. Method: The study included three monocentric, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomised, dietary intervention trials without a placebo. Each recruiting centre tested the five bioactive combinations within a single food matrix. Results: The study was completed by 167 participants (74 male, 93 female). The results indicated that specific bioactive/matrix combinations have effects on serum triglyceride or HDL-cholesterol level without adverse effects. Conclusion: The study evidenced that bioactive-enriched food offers a promising food-based strategy for MetS prevention, and highlighted the importance of conducting pilot studies

    Dietary diversity of women from soybean and non-soybean farming households in rural Zambia

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    IntroductionSoybean farming in Zambia is promoted to increase farm productivity and diversification away from maize, and improve cash income and livelihoods for farmers. However, the impact of soybean farming on women's dietary intake is not clear. This study compares the dietary diversity of women from soybean (S) and non-soybean (NS) farming households as a pathway to understanding policy efficacy.MethodsA cross-sectional survey involving 268 women of reproductive age from 401 rural households was conducted in two soybean-producing districts of Central Province, Zambia. Data from a qualitative 7-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS), women's dietary diversity scores (WDDS-10) and assess dietary patterns. Information on household sociodemographic and agricultural characteristics was used to explore determinants of dietary diversity.ResultsResults show there were no significant differences in the mean DDS (S: 10.3 ± 2.4; NS:10.3 ± 2.6) and WDDS-10 (S:6.27 ± 1.55; NS:6.27 ± 1.57) of women from soybean and non-soybean farming households. Both cohorts had similar dietary patterns, plant-based food groups with additional fats and oils. Agricultural diversity was not associated with dietary diversity. Household wealth status was the most important determinant of dietary diversity, as women from wealthier households were more likely to have higher DDS (β = 0.262, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.70, P < 0.001) and WDDS-10 (β = 0.222, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.37, P < 0.003) compared to those from poorer households. Women from households that spent more on food had a higher DDS (β = 0.182, 95% CI = 0.002 to 0.07), but not WDDS-10 (β = 0.120, 95% CI = −0.01 to 0.03); for every additional dollar spent on food in the past 7 days, the DDS increased by 0.18. Meanwhile, soyabean farming was not statistically associated with higher wealth.ConclusionsPolicymakers and promoters of agricultural diversification and nutrition-sensitive agriculture need to consider how women can benefit directly or indirectly from soybean farming or other interventions aimed at smallholder farmers

    Adsorption of aflatoxin B1 to corn by-products

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    The adsorption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to natural fiber materials prepared from corn by-products was investigated in this study. The results showed that corn cob powder (CCP) dose, particle size, time (0.25–24 h), temperature (4, 20, 37, 50 and 100 °C) and pH (2–8), had significant effects on adsorption. The maximum adsorption (98%) was with particles 500–355 µm in size at 20 °C for 8 h, at the dose of 50 mg mL−1. The adsorption fitted pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm well. Besides, CCP had a higher adsorption capacity to AFB1 than any single cell wall components of corn, which indicated that capillary effect happened in cell wall might be the main reason for adsorption. The results also suggested that CCP could reduce AFB1 content from both liquid and solid food matrixes. Briefly, CCP displayed promising properties that could be developed in nature-based practical applications for food aflatoxin decontamination