3,675 research outputs found

    Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

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    The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LA) concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD) fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01) from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01) at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01) 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise

    The burden of minimal hepatic encephalopathy: from diagnosis to therapeutic strategies

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    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It affects the performance of psychometric tests focused on attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial ability, as well as electrophysiological and other functional brain measures. MHE is a frequent complication of liver disease, affecting up to 80% of tested patients. By being related to falls, an impairment in fitness to drive and the development of overt HE, MHE severely affects the lives of patients and caregivers by altering their quality of life and their socioeconomic status. MHE is detected in clinically asymptomatic patients using appropriate psychometric tests and neurophysiological methods that highlight neuropsychological alterations, such as video-spatial orientation deficits, attention disorders, memory, reaction times, electroencephalogram slowing, prolongation of latency-evoked cognitive potentials, and reduction in the critical flicker frequency. Several treatments have been proposed for MHE treatment, including non-absorbable disaccharides, poorly absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin, probiotics and branched-chain amino acids. However, because of the multiple diagnosis methods, the various endpoints of treatment trials and the variety of agents used in trials, the treatment of MHE is not currently recommended as routine, but only on a case-by-case basis

    Association of a homozygous GCK missense mutation with mild diabetes

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    Background: Homozygous inactivating GCK mutations have been repeatedly reported to cause severe hyperglycemia, presenting as permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). Conversely, only two cases of GCK homozygous mutations causing mild hyperglycemia have been so far described. We here report a novel GCK mutation (c.1116G&gt;C, p.E372D), in a family with one homozygous member showing mild hyperglycemia. Methods: GCK mutational screening was carried out by Sanger sequencing. Computational analyses to investigate pathogenicity and molecular dynamics (MD) were performed for GCK-E372D and for previously described homozygous mutations associated with mild (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;2) or severe (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;1) hyperglycemia, used as references. Results: Of four mildly hyperglycemic family-members, three were heterozygous and one, diagnosed in the adulthood, was homozygous for GCK-E372D. Two nondiabetic family members carried no mutations. Fasting glucose (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.016) and HbA1c (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.035) correlated with the number of mutated alleles (0–2). In-silico predicted pathogenicity was not correlated with the four mutations’ severity. At MD, GCK-E372D conferred protein structure flexibility intermediate between mild and severe GCK mutations. Conclusions: We present the third case of homozygous GCK mutations associated with mild hyperglycemia, rather than PNDM. Our in-silico analyses support previous evidences suggesting that protein stability plays a role in determining clinical severity of GCK mutations

    Common features between neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the biliary tract and the pancreas

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    The bile duct system and pancreas show many similarities due to their anatomical proximity and common embryological origin. Consequently, preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the bile duct and pancreas share analogies in terms of molecular, histological and pathophysiological features. Intraepithelial neoplasms are reported in biliary tract, as biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN), and in pancreas, as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN). Both can evolve to invasive carcinomas, respectively cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Intraductal papillary neoplasms arise in biliary tract and pancreas. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB) share common histologic and phenotypic features such as pancreatobiliary, gastric, intestinal and oncocytic types, and biological behavior with the pancreatic counterpart, the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN). All these neoplastic lesions exhibit similar immunohistochemical phenotypes, suggesting a common carcinogenic process. Indeed, CCA and PDAC display similar clinic-pathological features as growth pattern, poor response to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and, as a consequence, an unfavorable prognosis. The objective of this review is to discuss similarities and differences between the neoplastic lesions of the pancreas and biliary tract with potential implications on a common origin from similar stem/progenitor cells

    From Protecting the Heart to Improving Athletic Performance - the Benefits of Local and Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning

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    Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive cardioprotective intervention that involves brief cycles of limb ischemia and reperfusion. This is typically delivered by inflating and deflating a blood pressure cuff on one or more limb(s) for several cycles, each inflation-deflation being 3-5 min in duration. RIPC has shown potential for protecting the heart and other organs from injury due to lethal ischemia and reperfusion injury, in a variety of clinical settings. The mechanisms underlying RIPC are under intense investigation but are just beginning to be deciphered. Emerging evidence suggests that RIPC has the potential to improve exercise performance, via both local and remote mechanisms. This review discusses the clinical studies that have investigated the role of RIPC in cardioprotection as well as those studying its applicability in improving athletic performance, while examining the potential mechanisms involved

    Strigolactones affect phosphorus acquisition strategies in tomato plants

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    Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones that modulate morphological, physiological and biochemical changes as part of the acclimation strategies to phosphorus (P) deficiency, but an in‐depth description of their effects on tomato P‐acquisition strategies under P shortage is missing. Therefore, in this study, we investigate how SLs impact on root exudation and P uptake, in qualitative and quantitative terms over time, in wild‐type and SL‐depleted tomato plants grown with or without P. Under P shortage, SL‐depleted plants were unable to efficiently activate most mechanisms associated with the P starvation response (PSR), except for the up‐regulation of P transporters and increased activity of P‐solubilizing enzymes. The reduced SL biosynthesis had negative effects also under normal P provision, because plants over‐activated high‐affinity transporters and enzymatic activities (phytase, acidic phosphatase) to sustain elevated P uptake, at great carbon and nitrogen costs. A shift in the onset of PSR was also highlighted in these plants. We conclude that SLs are master kinetic regulators of the PSR in tomato and that their defective synthesis might lead both to suboptimal nutritional outcomes under P depletion and an unbalanced control of P uptake when P is available

    Intracerebral electrical stimulations of the temporal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study

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    The functional anatomy of the anteromesial portion of the temporal lobe and its involvement in epilepsy can be explored by means of intracerebral electrical stimulations. Here, we aimed to expand the knowledge of its physiological and pathophysiological symptoms by conducting the first large-sample systematic analysis of 1529 electrical stimulations of this anatomical region. We retrospectively analysed all clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral electrical stimulations in 173 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy with at least one electrode implanted in this area. We found that high-frequency stimulations were more likely to evoke electroclinical manifestations (p < .0001) and also provoked ‘false positive’ seizures. Multimodal symptoms were associated with EEG electrical modification (after discharge) (p < .0001). Visual symptoms were not associated with after discharge (p = .0002) and were mainly evoked by stimulation of the hippocampus (p = .009) and of the parahippocampal gyrus (p = .0212). ‘False positive seizures’ can be evoked by stimulation of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, likely due to their intrinsic low epileptogenic threshold. Visual symptoms evoked in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, without EEG changes, are physiological symptoms and suggest involvement of these areas in the visual ventral stream. Our findings provide meaningful guidance in the interpretation of intracranial EEG studies of the temporal lobe