71 research outputs found

    Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiovascular Remodeling and Inflammation

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    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. It also leads to the activation of coagulation. The coagulation protease thrombin induces cellular responses by activating protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We investigated if PAR-1 contributes to Ang II-induced cardiovascular remodeling and inflammation

    Traumatic Endotheliopathy:A Prospective Observational Study of 424 Severely Injured Patients

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    OBJECTIVE: Investigate and confirm the association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy and poor outcome in trauma patients. BACKGROUND: The association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy, and poor outcome in trauma has only been demonstrated in smaller patient cohorts and animal models but needs confirmation in a large independent patient cohort. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 424 trauma patients admitted to a level 1 Trauma Center. Admission plasma levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, and sE-selectin) were measured and demography, injury type and severity, physiology, treatment, and mortality up till 28 days were recorded. RESULTS: Patients had a median ISS of 17 with 72% suffering from blunt injury. Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated with syndecan-1 (r = 0.38, P < 0.001 and r = 0.23, P < 0.001, respectively) but adrenaline was the only independent predictor of syndecan-1 by multiple linear regression adjusted for age, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, base excess, platelet count, hemoglobin, prehospital plasma, and prehospital fluids (100 pg/mL higher adrenaline predicted 2.75 ng/mL higher syndecan-1, P < 0.001). By Cox analyses adjusted for age, sex, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, base excess, platelet count and hemoglobin, adrenaline, and syndecan-1 were the only independent predictors of both <24-hours, 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, noradrenaline was an independent predictor of <24-hours mortality and thrombomodulin was an independent predictor of 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that sympathoadrenal activation was strongly and independently associated with endothelial glycocalyx and cell damage (ie, endotheliopathy) and furthermore that sympathoadrenal activation and endotheliopathy were independent predictors of mortality in trauma patients

    A 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate dodecasaccharide (12-mer) suppresses thromboinflammation and attenuates early organ injury following trauma and hemorrhagic shock

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    Introduction Dysregulated inflammation and coagulation are underlying mechanisms driving organ injury after trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Heparan sulfates, cell surface glycosaminoglycans abundantly expressed on the endothelial surface, regulate a variety of cellular processes. Endothelial heparan sulfate containing a rare 3-O-sulfate modification on a glucosamine residue is anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory through high-affinity antithrombin binding and sequestering of circulating damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Our goal was to evaluate therapeutic potential of a synthetic 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate dodecasaccharide (12-mer, or dekaparin) to attenuate thromboinflammation and prevent organ injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated subcutaneously with vehicle (saline) or dekaparin (2 mg/kg) and subjected to a trauma/hemorrhagic shock model through laparotomy, gut distention, and fixed-pressure hemorrhage. Vehicle and dekaparin-treated rats were resuscitated with Lactated Ringer’s solution (LR) and compared to vehicle-treated fresh-frozen-plasma-(FFP)-resuscitated rats. Serial blood samples were collected at baseline, after induction of shock, and 3 hours after fluid resuscitation to measure hemodynamic and metabolic shock indicators, inflammatory mediators, and thrombin-antithrombin complex formation. Lungs and kidneys were processed for organ injury scoring and immunohistochemical analysis to quantify presence of neutrophils. Results Induction of trauma and hemorrhagic shock resulted in significant increases in thrombin-antithrombin complex, inflammatory markers, and lung and kidney injury scores. Compared to vehicle, dekaparin treatment did not affect induction, severity, or recovery of shock as indicated by hemodynamics, metabolic indicators of shock (lactate and base excess), or metrics of bleeding, including overall blood loss, resuscitation volume, or hematocrit. While LR-vehicle-resuscitated rodents exhibited increased lung and kidney injury, administration of dekaparin significantly reduced organ injury scores and was similar to organ protection conferred by FFP resuscitation. This was associated with a significant reduction in neutrophil infiltration in lungs and kidneys and reduced lung fibrin deposition among dekaparin-treated rats compared to vehicle. No differences in organ injury, neutrophil infiltrates, or fibrin staining between dekaparin and FFP groups were observed. Finally, dekaparin treatment attenuated induction of thrombin-antithrombin complex and inflammatory mediators in plasma following trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion Anti-thromboinflammatory properties of a synthetic 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate 12-mer, dekaparin, could provide therapeutic benefit for mitigating organ injury following major trauma and hemorrhagic shock

    Regional Selection Acting on the OFD1 Gene Family

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    The OFD1 (oral-facial-digital, type 1) gene is implicated in several developmental disorders in humans. The X-linked OFD1 (OFD1X) is conserved in Eutheria. Knowledge about the Y-linked paralog (OFD1Y) is limited. In this study, we identified an OFD1Y on the bovine Y chromosome, which is expressed differentially from the bovine OFD1X. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that: a) the eutherian OFD1X and OFD1Y were derived from the pair of ancestral autosomes during sex chromosome evolution; b) the autosomal OFD1 pseudogenes, present in Catarrhini and Murinae, were derived from retropositions of OFD1X after the divergence of primates and rodents; and c) the presence of OFD1Y in the ampliconic region of the primate Y chromosome is an indication that the expansion of the ampliconic region may initiate from the X-degenerated sequence. In addition, we found that different regions of OFD1/OFD1X/OFD1Y are under differential selection pressures. The C-terminal half of OFD1 is under relaxed selection with an elevated Ka/Ks ratio and clustered positively selected sites, whereas the N-terminal half is under stronger constraints. This study provides some insights into why the OFD1X gene causes OFD1 (male-lethal X-linked dominant) and SGBS2 & JSRDs (X-linked recessive) syndromes in humans, and reveals the origin and evolution of the OFD1 family, which will facilitate further clinical investigation of the OFD1-related syndromes

    Functional annotation of human long noncoding RNAs via molecular phenotyping

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    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute the majority of transcripts in the mammalian genomes, and yet, their functions remain largely unknown. As part of the FANTOM6 project, we systematically knocked down the expression of 285 lncRNAs in human dermal fibroblasts and quantified cellular growth, morphological changes, and transcriptomic responses using Capped Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE). Antisense oligonucleotides targeting the same lncRNAs exhibited global concordance, and the molecular phenotype, measured by CAGE, recapitulated the observed cellular phenotypes while providing additional insights on the affected genes and pathways. Here, we disseminate the largest-todate lncRNA knockdown data set with molecular phenotyping (over 1000 CAGE deep-sequencing libraries) for further exploration and highlight functional roles for ZNF213-AS1 and lnc-KHDC3L-2.Peer reviewe

    Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950-2019 : a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background: Accurate and up-to-date assessment of demographic metrics is crucial for understanding a wide range of social, economic, and public health issues that affect populations worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 produced updated and comprehensive demographic assessments of the key indicators of fertility, mortality, migration, and population for 204 countries and territories and selected subnational locations from 1950 to 2019. Methods: 8078 country-years of vital registration and sample registration data, 938 surveys, 349 censuses, and 238 other sources were identified and used to estimate age-specific fertility. Spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR) was used to generate age-specific fertility rates for 5-year age groups between ages 15 and 49 years. With extensions to age groups 10–14 and 50–54 years, the total fertility rate (TFR) was then aggregated using the estimated age-specific fertility between ages 10 and 54 years. 7417 sources were used for under-5 mortality estimation and 7355 for adult mortality. ST-GPR was used to synthesise data sources after correction for known biases. Adult mortality was measured as the probability of death between ages 15 and 60 years based on vital registration, sample registration, and sibling histories, and was also estimated using ST-GPR. HIV-free life tables were then estimated using estimates of under-5 and adult mortality rates using a relational model life table system created for GBD, which closely tracks observed age-specific mortality rates from complete vital registration when available. Independent estimates of HIV-specific mortality generated by an epidemiological analysis of HIV prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance and other sources were incorporated into the estimates in countries with large epidemics. Annual and single-year age estimates of net migration and population for each country and territory were generated using a Bayesian hierarchical cohort component model that analysed estimated age-specific fertility and mortality rates along with 1250 censuses and 747 population registry years. We classified location-years into seven categories on the basis of the natural rate of increase in population (calculated by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate) and the net migration rate. We computed healthy life expectancy (HALE) using years lived with disability (YLDs) per capita, life tables, and standard demographic methods. Uncertainty was propagated throughout the demographic estimation process, including fertility, mortality, and population, with 1000 draw-level estimates produced for each metric. Findings: The global TFR decreased from 2·72 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2·66–2·79) in 2000 to 2·31 (2·17–2·46) in 2019. Global annual livebirths increased from 134·5 million (131·5–137·8) in 2000 to a peak of 139·6 million (133·0–146·9) in 2016. Global livebirths then declined to 135·3 million (127·2–144·1) in 2019. Of the 204 countries and territories included in this study, in 2019, 102 had a TFR lower than 2·1, which is considered a good approximation of replacement-level fertility. All countries in sub-Saharan Africa had TFRs above replacement level in 2019 and accounted for 27·1% (95% UI 26·4–27·8) of global livebirths. Global life expectancy at birth increased from 67·2 years (95% UI 66·8–67·6) in 2000 to 73·5 years (72·8–74·3) in 2019. The total number of deaths increased from 50·7 million (49·5–51·9) in 2000 to 56·5 million (53·7–59·2) in 2019. Under-5 deaths declined from 9·6 million (9·1–10·3) in 2000 to 5·0 million (4·3–6·0) in 2019. Global population increased by 25·7%, from 6·2 billion (6·0–6·3) in 2000 to 7·7 billion (7·5–8·0) in 2019. In 2019, 34 countries had negative natural rates of increase; in 17 of these, the population declined because immigration was not sufficient to counteract the negative rate of decline. Globally, HALE increased from 58·6 years (56·1–60·8) in 2000 to 63·5 years (60·8–66·1) in 2019. HALE increased in 202 of 204 countries and territories between 2000 and 2019

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods: GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990–2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0–9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10–24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10–24 years were also in the top ten in the 25–49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50–74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation: As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and developm nt investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 licens
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