1,817 research outputs found

    CMS Search Plans and Sensitivity to New Physics using Dijets

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    CMS will use dijets to search for physics beyond the standard model during early LHC running. The inclusive jet cross section as a function of jet transverse momentum, with 10 pb−1^{-1} of integrated luminosity, is sensitive to contact interactions beyond the reach of the Tevatron. The dijet mass distribution will be used to search for dijet resonances coming from new particles, for example an excited quark. Additional sensitivity to the existence of contact interactions or dijet resonances can be obtained by comparing dijet rates in two distinct pseudorapidity regions

    A comprehensive approach to analyzing the XMM-Newton data of Seyfert 1 galaxies

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    Aims. We seek a comprehensive analysis of all the information provided by the XMM-Newton satellite of the four Seyfert 1 galaxies ESO 359-G19, HE 1143-1810, CTS A08.12, and Mrk 110, including the UV range, to characterize the different components that are emitting and absorbing radiation in the vicinity of the active nucleus. Methods. The continuum emission was studied through the EPIC spectra by taking advantage of the spectral range of these cameras. The high-resolution RGS spectra were analyzed to characterize the absorbing and emission line features that arise in the spectra of the sources. All these data, complemented by information in the UV, are analyzed jointly in order to achieve a consistent characterization of the observed features in each object. Results. The continuum emission of the sources can be characterized either by a combination of a power law and a black body for the weakest objects or by two power law components for the brightest ones. The continuum is not absorbed by neutral or ionized material in the line of sight to any of these sources. In all of them we have identified a narrow Fe-Kalpha line at 6.4 keV. In ESO 559-G19 we also find an FeXXVI line at about 7 keV. In the soft X-rays band, we identify only one OVII line in the spectra of HE 1143-1810 and CTS A08.12, and two OVII-He alpha triplets and a narrow OVIII-Ly alpha emission line in Mrk 110. Conclusions. Not detecting warm material in the line of sight to the low state objects is due to intrinsically weaker or absent absorption in the line of sight and not to a low signal-to-noise ratio in the data. Besides this, the absence of clear emission lines cannot be fully attributed to dilution of those lines by a strong continuum.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures, 9 tables, accepted by A&

    CMS search plans and sensitivity to new physics with dijets

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    CMS will use dijets to search for physics beyond the standard model during early LHC running. The inclusive jet cross section as a function of jet transverse momentum, with 10 inverse picobarns of integrated luminosity, is sensitive to contact interactions beyond the reach of the Tevatron. The dijet mass distribution will be used to search for dijet resonances coming from new particles, for example an excited quark. Additional sensitivity to the existence of contact interactions or dijet resonances can be obtained by comparing dijet rates in two distinct pseudorapidity regions.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phy

    Full-length TrkB variant in NSCLC is associated with brain metastasis

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    Despite remarkable therapeutic advances have been made in the last few decades, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Brain metastases are a common complication of a wide range of human malignancies and in particular NSCLC. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), binding its high-affinity tyrosine kinase B receptor, has been shown to promote cancer progression and metastasis. We hereby investigated the expression of the BDNF and its TrkB receptor in its full-length and truncated isoform T1, in samples from primary adenocarcinomas (ADKs) of the lung and in their metastasis to evaluate if their expression was related to preferential tumor entry into the central nervous system (CNS). By immunohistochemistry, 80% of the ADKs that metastasize to central nervous system expressed TrkB receptor compared to 33% expressing of ADKs without CNS metastasis. Moreover, ADKs with CNS metastasis showed an elevated expression of the full-length TrkB receptor. The TrkB receptor FL/T1 ratio was statistically higher in primary ADKs with brain metastasis compared to ADKs without brain metastasis. Our data indicate that TrkB full-length isoform expression in primary ADK cells may be associated with higher risk to develop brain metastasis. Therefore, TrkB receptor may possess prognostic and therapeutic implications in lung ADK

    Early management of COPD: Where are we now and where do we go from here? a delphi consensus project

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    Purpose: There is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate early diagnostic strategy, criteria for early access to treatment and follow-up approach for patients with COPD.Materials and methods: A Delphi consensus project investigated the early management of COPD. We formulated two questionnaires for completion by pneumologists in Italy.Results: A total of 207 specialists completed questionnaire 1 and 184 of them questionnaire 2, between November 2016 and October 2017. Early diagnosis of COPD was considered uncommon for 93.2% of the expert panel. Regardless of the definition of "early diagnosis" - a diagnosis made before the clinical manifestation of the disease for most responders (60.4%) - experts were confident of the positive effects of early disease management, which they consider is effective in modifying the natural history of the disease. Lack of awareness of the disease was considered the first limiting factor to early COPD management for 78% of respondents. The most effective steps to reduce functional decline were considered to be smoking cessation, followed by long-acting beta 2-agonist (LABA)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), LAMA, LABA, and finally inhaled corticosteroid/LABA (P<0.01 for each paired comparison). Specialists considered it "inappropriate" for general practitioners to perform both the early diagnosis and therapy of COPD without the involvement of a specialist.Conclusion: Early management of COPD is uncommon, and although data on the effects of early disease management on long-term outcomes are limited, Italian experts are confident of the clinical efficacy of this approach

    A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives the liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells by a physical and functional interaction with hepatic angiopoietin-like 6

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    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α(6) integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α(6) integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α(6) integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC

    D-mannose suppresses macrophage IL-1β production

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    D-mannose is a monosaccharide approximately a hundred times less abundant than glucose in human blood. Previous studies demonstrated that supraphysiological levels of D-mannose inhibit tumour growth and stimulate regulatory T cell differentiation. It is not known whether D-mannose metabolism affects the function of non-proliferative cells, such as inflammatory macrophages. Here, we show that D-mannose suppresses LPS-induced macrophage activation by impairing IL-1β production. In vivo, mannose administration improves survival in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxemia as well as decreases progression in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Phosphomannose isomerase controls response of LPS-activated macrophages to D-mannose, which impairs glucose metabolism by raising intracellular mannose-6-phosphate levels. Such alterations result in the suppression of succinate-mediated HIF-1α activation, imposing a consequent reduction of LPS-induced Il1b expression. Disclosing an unrecognized metabolic hijack of macrophage activation, our study points towards safe D-mannose utilization as an effective intervention against inflammatory conditions

    Review of multiple hazards in volcanic islands to enable the management of long-term risks: the cases of Ischia and Vulcano, Italy

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    The management of long-term volcanic risks represents a challenge that requires a close cooperation between science and decision-making. This is particularly crucial in volcanic islands, which are characterized by multiple hazards concentrated in a relatively small environment, often associated with a large seasonality of exposure due to tourism. The scientific challenges are mainly the quantification and the characterization of the interactions among the multiple hazardous phenomena that may occur during the different “states of thevolcano” (quiescence, unrest, eruption) and the definition of robust methods to forecast the transition between these states. For these topics, the emerging scientific knowledge is often rather limited and uncertain and, also in case it was well constrained, difficult to communicate to decision makers due to its intrinsic complexity. On the other side, the challenge for decision making is to assimilate this uncertain knowledgeand translate it into actions. Here, we discuss the experience gained in two working groups (WGs) in charge of reviewing the state of knowledge about volcanic hazards for the Italian volcanic islands of Ischia and Vulcano to build the scientific ground for subsequent decision making. These WGs, formed within the agreement between INGV and the Italian Civil Protection Department, involved about 20 researchers from INGV and Universities, as well as representatives of the Italian Civil Protection, to facilitate the reciprocal understanding and to address the work toward useful results for decision making. The WGs reviewed all the potential volcanic hazards for Ischia and Vulcano based on literature, results of previous projects, as well as ad hoc audits of other experts on specific topics, and organized a workshop to present the results and receive feedbacks from the extended scientific community

    Early management of COPD : Where are we now and where do we go from here? a delphi consensus project

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    Purpose: There is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate early diagnostic strategy, criteria for early access to treatment and follow-up approach for patients with COPD. Materials and methods: A Delphi consensus project investigated the early management of COPD. We formulated two questionnaires for completion by pneumologists in Italy. Results: A total of 207 specialists completed questionnaire 1 and 184 of them questionnaire 2, between November 2016 and October 2017. Early diagnosis of COPD was considered uncommon for 93.2% of the expert panel. Regardless of the definition of \u201cearly diagnosis\u201d \u2013 a diagnosis made before the clinical manifestation of the disease for most responders (60.4%) \u2013 experts were confident of the positive effects of early disease management, which they consider is effective in modifying the natural history of the disease. Lack of awareness of the disease was considered the first limiting factor to early COPD management for 78% of respondents. The most effective steps to reduce functional decline were considered to be smoking cessation, followed by long-acting \u3b22-agonist (LABA)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), LAMA, LABA, and finally inhaled corticosteroid/LABA (P<0.01 for each paired comparison). Specialists considered it \u201cinappropriate\u201d for general practitioners to perform both the early diagnosis and therapy of COPD without the involvement of a specialist. Conclusion: Early management of COPD is uncommon, and although data on the effects of early disease management on long-term outcomes are limited, Italian experts are confident of the clinical efficacy of this approach
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