165 research outputs found

    A well resolved ODMR triplet minus singlet spectrum of P680 from PSII particles

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    AbstractAn ADMR T-S spectrum of the primary donor (P680) of photosystem II (PSII) was obtained from anaerobically photoreduced particles. The spectrum is the best resolved obtained so far having a main bleaching band at 684 nm with a linewidth of only 100 cm‚ąí1. The view that this spectrum is produced by native homogeneous P680 unlike those obtained before is defended. A small bleaching observed at 678 nm is discussed in terms of the reaction center structure. One possible interpretation of the observations is that P680 is a very loose dimer with an exciton splitting of only 144 cm‚ąí1 corresponding to a dimer center-to-center distance of roughly 11.5 √Ö

    Identifying conformational changes with site-directed spin labeling reveals that the GTPase domain of HydF is a molecular switch

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    [FeFe]-hydrogenases catalyse the reduction of protons to hydrogen at a complex 2Fe[4Fe4S] center called H-cluster. The assembly of this active site is a multistep process involving three proteins, HydE, HydF and HydG. According to the current models, HydF has the key double role of scaffold, upon which the final H-cluster precursor is assembled, and carrier to transfer it to the target hydrogenase. The X-ray structure of HydF indicates that the protein is a homodimer with both monomers carrying two functional domains: a C-terminal FeS cluster-binding domain, where the precursor is assembled, and a N-terminal GTPase domain, whose exact contribution to cluster biogenesis and hydrogenase activation is still elusive. We previously obtained several hints suggesting that the binding of GTP to HydF could be involved in the interactions of this scaffold protein with the other maturases and with the hydrogenase itself. In this work, by means of site directed spin labeling coupled to EPR/PELDOR spectroscopy, we explored the conformational changes induced in a recombinant HydF protein by GTP binding, and provide the first clue that the HydF GTPase domain could be involved in the H-cluster assembly working as a molecular switch similarly to other known small GTPases

    Changes in the fraction of strongly attached cross bridges in mouse atrophic and hypertrophic muscles as revealed by continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance.

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    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), coupled with site-directed spin labeling, has been proven to be a particularly suitable technique to extract information on the fraction of myosin heads strongly bound to actin upon muscle contraction. The approach can be used to investigate possible structural changes occurring in myosin of fiber s altered by diseases and aging. In this work, we labeled myosin at position Cys707, located in the SH1-SH2 helix in the myosin head cleft, with iodoacetamide spin label, a spin label that is sensitive to the reorientational motion of this protein during the ATPase cycle and characterized the biochemical states of the labeled myosin head by means of continuous wave EPR. After checking the sensitivity and the power of the technique on different muscles and species, we investigated whether changes in the fraction of strongly bound myosin heads might explain the contractile alterations observed in atrophic and hypertrophic murine muscles. In both conditions, the difference in contractile force could not be justified simply by the difference in muscle mass. Our results showed that in atrophic muscles the decrease in force generation was attributable to a lower fraction of strongly bound cross bridges during maximal activation. In contrast in hypertrophic muscles, the increase in force generation was likely due to several factors, as pointed out by the comparison of the EPR experiments with the tension measurements on single skinned fibers

    The electronic structure and dynamics of the excited triplet state of octaethylaluminum(III)-porphyrin investigated with advanced EPR methods

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    The photoexcited triplet state of octaethylaluminum(III)-porphyrin (AlOEP) was investigated by time-resolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Electron Nuclear Double Resonance and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation in an organic glass at 10 and 80 K. This main group element porphyrin is unusual because the metal has a small ionic radius and is six-coordinate with axial covalent and coordination bonds. It is not known whether triplet state dynamics influence its magnetic resonance properties as has been observed for some transition metal porphyrins. Together with density functional theory modelling, the magnetic resonance data of AlOEP allow the temperature dependence of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters, D and E, and the proton AZZ hyperfine coupling (hfc) tensor components of the methine protons, in the zero-field splitting frame to be determined. The results provide evidence that the ZFS, hfc and spin‚Äďlattice relaxation are indeed influenced by the presence of a dynamic process that is discussed in terms of Jahn-Teller dynamic effects. Thus, these effects should be taken into account when interpreting EPR data from larger complexes containing AlOEP

    Exploring iron-binding to human frataxin and to selected Friedreich ataxia mutants by means of NMR and EPR spectroscopies

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    The neurodegenerative disease Friedreich ataxia results from a deficiency of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein. Most patients have a GAA expansion in the first intron of both alleles of frataxin gene, whereas a minority of them are heterozygous for the expansion and contain a mutation in the other allele. Frataxin has been claimed to participate in iron homeostasis and biosynthesis of FeS clusters, however its role in both pathways is not unequivocally defined. In this work we combined different advanced spectroscopic analyses to explore the iron-binding properties of human frataxin, as isolated and at the FeS clusters assembly machinery. For the first time we used EPR spectroscopy to address this key issue providing clear evidence of the formation of a complex with a low symmetry coordination of the metal ion. By 2D NMR, we confirmed that iron can be bound in both oxidation states, a controversial issue, and, in addition, we were able to point out a transient interaction of frataxin with a N-terminal 6his-tagged variant of ISCU, the scaffold protein of the FeS clusters assembly machinery. To obtain insights on structure/function relationships relevant to understand the disease molecular mechanism(s), we extended our studies to four clinical frataxin mutants. All variants showed a moderate to strong impairment in their ability to activate the FeS cluster assembly machinery in vitro, while keeping the same iron-binding features of the wild type protein. This supports the multifunctional nature of frataxin and the complex biochemical consequences of its mutations.Fil: Bellanda, Massimo. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: Maso, Lorenzo. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: Doni, Davide. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: Bortolus, M.. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: De Rosa, E.. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: Lunardi, Federica. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: Alfonsi, Arianna. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: Noguera, Martín Ezequiel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas; ArgentinaFil: Herrera, Maria Georgina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas; ArgentinaFil: Santos, Javier. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas; ArgentinaFil: Carbonera, Donatella. Università di Padova; ItaliaFil: Costantini, Paola. Università di Padova; Itali

    An unusual role for the phytyl chains in the photoprotection of the chlorophylls bound to Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-binding Proteins

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    Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Proteins (WSCPs) from Brassicaceae are non-photosynthetic proteins which tetramerize upon binding four chlorophyll (Chl) molecules. The bound Chls are highly photostable, despite the lack of bound carotenoids known, in Chl-containing photosynthetic proteins, to act as singlet oxygen and Chl triplet (3Chl) quenchers. Although the physiological function of WSCPs is still unclear, it is likely to be related to their biochemical stability and their resistance to photodegradation. To get insight into the origin of this photostability, the properties of the 3Chl generated in WSCPs upon illumination were investigated. We found that, unlike the excited singlet states, which are excitonic states, the triplet state is localized on a single Chl molecule. Moreover, the lifetime of the 3Chl generated in WSCPs is comparable to that observed in other Chl-containing systems and is reduced in presence of oxygen. In contrast to previous observations, we found that WSCP actually photosensitizes singlet oxygen with an efficiency comparable to that of Chl in organic solvent. We demonstrated that the observed resistance to photooxidation depends on the conformation of the phytyl moieties, which in WSCP are interposed between the rings of Chl dimers, hindering the access of singlet oxygen to the oxidizable sites of the pigments

    ESR of Biological Systems. Applications to photosynthesis

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    Basics principles of EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies and applications to photosynthesis research

    Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of photoexcited triplet states

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    Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) is a double resonance technique which combines optical measurements (fluorescence, phosphorescence, absorption) with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After the first triplet-state ODMR experiments in zero magnetic field reported in 1968 by Schmidt and van der Waals, the number of double resonance studies on excited triplet states grew rapidly. Photosynthesis has proven to be a fruitful field of application due to the intrinsic possibility of forming photo-induced pigment triplet states in many sites of the photosynthetic apparatus. The basic principles of this technique are described and examples of application in Photosynthesis are reporte
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