554 research outputs found

    TRANSLATE -- A Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in Liquid Argon

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    The microphysics of electron and photon propagation in liquid argon is a key component of detector design and calibrations needed to construct and perform measurements within a wide range of particle physics experiments. As experiments grow in scale and complexity, and as the precision of their intended measurements increases, the development of tools to investigate important microphysics effects impacting such detectors becomes necessary. In this paper we present a new time-domain Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in liquid argon. The simulation models the TRANSport in Liquid Argon of near-Thermal Electrons (TRANSLATE) with the aim of providing a multi-purpose software package for the study and optimization of detector environments, with a particular focus on ongoing and next generation liquid argon neutrino experiments utilizing the time projection chamber technology. TRANSLATE builds on previous work of Wojcik and Tachiya, amongst others, introducing additional cross-section processes up to ionization, thus modeling the full range of drift electron scattering interactions. The simulation is validated by benchmarking its performance with swarm parameters from data collected in experimental setups operating in gas and liquid.Comment: 17 pages, 12 figure

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum