661 research outputs found

    BBN as Probe of Fundamental Physics

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    Active Galactic Nuclei with Starbursts: Sources for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

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    Ultra high energy cosmic ray events presently show a spectrum, which we interpret here as galactic cosmic rays due to a starburst in the radio galaxy Cen A pushed up in energy by the shock of a relativistic jet. The knee feature and the particles with energy immediately higher in galactic cosmic rays then turn into the bulk of ultra high energy cosmic rays. This entails that all ultra high energy cosmic rays are heavy nuclei. This picture is viable if the majority of the observed ultra high energy events come from the radio galaxy Cen A, and are scattered by intergalactic magnetic fields across most of the sky.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, proceedings of "High-Energy Gamma-rays and Neutrinos from Extra-Galactic Sources", Heidelber

    Supernova explosions of massive stars and cosmic rays

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    Most cosmic ray particles observed derive from the explosions of massive stars, which commonly produce stellar black holes in their supernova explosions. When two such black holes find themselves in a tight binary system they finally merge in a gigantic emission of gravitational waves, events that have now been detected. After an introduction (section 1) we introduce the basic concept (section 2): Cosmic rays from exploding massive stars with winds always show two cosmic ray components at the same time: (i) the weaker polar cap component only produced by Diffusive Shock Acceleration with a cut-off at the knee, and (ii) the stronger 4π4 \pi component with a down-turn to a steeper power-law spectrum at the knee, and a final cutoff at the ankle. In section 3 we use the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) data to differentiate these two cosmic ray spectral components. The ensuing secondary spectra can explain anti-protons, lower energy positrons, and other secondary particles. Triplet pair production may explain the higher energy positron AMS data. In section 4 we test this paradigm with a theory of injection based on a combined effect of first and second ionization potential; this reproduces the ratio of Cosmic Ray source abundances to source material abundances. In section 5 we interpret the compact radio source 41.9+58 in the starburst galaxy M82 as a recent binary black hole merger, with an accompanying gamma ray burst. This can also explain the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) data in the Northern sky. Thus, by studying the cosmic ray particles, their abundances at knee energies, and their spectra, we can learn about what drives these stars to produce the observed cosmic rays.Comment: 151 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Advances in Space Researc