239 research outputs found

    The history of small extracellular vesicles and their implication in cancer drug resistance

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    Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the last 20 years are demonstrated to possess promising properties as potential new drug delivery systems, biomarkers, and therapeutic targets. Moreover, EVs are described to be involved in the most important steps of tumor development and progression including drug resistance. The acquired or intrinsic capacity of cancer cells to resist chemotherapies is one of the greatest obstacles to overcome to improve the prognosis of many patients. EVs are involved in this mechanism by exporting the drugs outside the cells and transferring the drug efflux pumps and miRNAs in recipient cells, in turn inducing drug resistance. In this mini-review, the main mechanisms by which EVs are involved in drug resistance are described, giving a rapid and clear overview of the field to the readers

    Breast metastasis of primary colon cancer with micrometastasis in the axillary sentinel node: A metastasis that metastasized?

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    A case of single breast metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma, with omolateral axillary micrometastasis, is reported with a brief review of the pertinent literature. The originality of the oncological concept of metastasis from metastasis, through lymphatics penetration, is discussed in the setting of a rare condition of breast metastasis from a colorectal carcinoma

    Atypical melanocytic lesions: a historical overview.

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    The distinction between atypical Spitz lesions, conventional melanocytic nevi including Spitz nevi, and malignant melanomas may be difficult in some cases or may even be impossible. The histological assessment of these lesions is necessary to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, pathologists may be subject to suboptimal concordance in the diagnosis of some atypical lesions. In literature, certain atypical lesions have been defined differently: the terms atypical and metastasising Spitz tumour, malignant Spitz nevus, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumour, melanocytic tumour of uncertain malignant potential MELTUMP, and low-grade malignant melanoma have been introduced to designate this heterogeneous group of pathological entities and variants. This review focuses on some issues concerning the historical background, diagnostic state-of-the-art, evolution, and classification of these complicated lesions

    Cost-Effective Organization of an Institutional Human Cancer Biobank in a Clinical Setting: CRO-Biobank Experience Toward Harmonization

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    This report describes the organization of the Biobank of the CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Aviano (CRO-Biobank), Italy, implemented as a structured facility dedicated to collecting human biological samples. It describes a particular disease-specific biobank and the integration of a research biobank in a clinical setting. The CRO-Biobank's mission is rooted in supporting and implementing cancer research, with its main focus on optimizing technical and quality processes, while also investigating ethical, legal and IT topics.The CRO-Biobank has implemented processes aimed at guaranteeing the safety of the providers, protecting patient privacy and ensuring both the traceability and quality of its samples. Our 8 years of experience allow us to offer insights and useful suggestions that may solve theoretical and practical issues that can arise when starting up new biobanks or developing existing biobanks further

    Drafting Biological Material Transfer Agreement: A Ready-To-Sign Model for Biobanks and Biorepositories

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    Purpose: Due to the scarcity of publications, guidelines, and harmonization among national regulations, biobanks and institutions face practical and theoretical issues when drafting a material transfer agreement (MTA), the fundamental tool to regulate the successful exchange of biosamples and information. Frequently researchers do not execute MTAs because of a general lack of knowledge about this topic. It is thus critical to develop new models to prevent loss of traceability and opportunities both for researchers and biobanks, their exposure to various risks, and delays in transferring biomaterials.Methods: Through the involvement of institutional groups and professionals with multidisciplinary expertise, we have drawn up a ready-to-sign MTA for the CRO-Biobank (the biobank of the National Cancer Institute, CRO, Aviano), a standardized template that can be employed as a ready-to-use model agreement.Results: The team identified the essential components to be included in the MTA, which comprise i) permissions, liability and representations; ii) custodianship and distribution limitations; iii) appropriate use of materials, including biosafety concerns; iv) confidentiality, non-disclosure, and publications; v) intellectual property protection for both the provider and recipient.Conclusions: This paper aims to be an unabridged report (among the few works in the existing literature) providing a description of the whole process related to the formation of an MTA. Biobanks and institutions may consider adopting our ready-to-sign form as a standard model. The article discusses the most important issues tackled during the drafting of the document, thus proposing an operative approach for other institutions that face the same problems

    Surgical Treatment of Paget Disease of the Vulva

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    ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of recurrence according to the surgical margin status and the presence of invasion or of superficially invasive carcinoma in patients with extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) of the vulva, who underwent elective surgical treatment.Materials and MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of 27 patients with first diagnosis of extramammary Paget disease of the vulva, who underwent primary and elective surgical treatment from January 1989 to December 2014. A p value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounding factors.ResultsWe observed invasive disease in 11 cases, with microinvasion in 8 of them. A positive surgical margin was found in 10 patients. During a median follow-up period of 79.5 months, 8 patients (29.6%) showed a first recurrence after a median (range) time of 4.9 (2.3-7.1) years. No significant differences were observed between patients with recurrence and patients without recurrence with respect to age, number of vulvar sectors involved, bilaterality and multifocality, presence of invasion or microinvasion, and surgical margin status. However, during the follow-up period, the presence of invasion was higher (67% vs 41%) in patients with recurrence compared with patients without recurrence.ConclusionsThe rate of recurrence of the disease after therapy is high. Patients should be subjected to a close and long-term follow-up to identify those who must undergo further treatment, especially if they presented with an invasive or even microinvasive disease. A free margin of no greater than 1 to 2 cm might be the most appropriate surgical choice

    Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and osteopenia or osteoporosis may develop as a consequence of vitamins malabsorption. Adenoma is a benign tumor that has the potential to become cancerous. Adult celiac disease patients present an overall risk of cancer that is almost twice than that found in the general population. These disease processes are not completely known.</p> <p>To date, a two dimensional (2D) reference map of proteins expressed in human duodenal tissue is not yet available: the aim of our study was to characterize the 2D protein map, and to identify proteins of duodenal mucosa of adult individuals without duodenal illness, to create a protein database. This approach, may be useful for comparing similar protein samples in different laboratories and for the molecular characterization of intestinal pathologies without recurring to the use of surgical material.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The enrolled population comprised five selected samples (3 males and 2 females, aged 19 to 42), taken from 20 adult subjects, on their first visit at the gastroenterology unit for a suspected celiac disease, who did not turn to be affected by any duodenal pathology after gastrointestinal and histological evaluations. Proteins extracted from the five duodenal mucosal specimens were singly separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. After image analysis of each 2D gel, 179 protein spots, representing 145 unique proteins, from 218 spots tested, were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF ms analysis. Normalized volumes, for each protein, have been reported for every gel. Proteins have been grouped according to their biological/metabolic functions.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study represents to date the first detailed and reproducible 2D protein map of human duodenum. Spots identifications, reported in a database, will be helpful to identify the variability in protein expression levels, in isoforms expression, or in post-translational modifications associated to pathology or to a therapy.</p

    Iron nitroprusside as a chemodynamic agent and inducer of ferroptosis for ovarian cancer therapy

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    ChemoDynamic Therapy (CDT) is a powerful therapeutic modality using Fenton/Fenton-like reactions to produce oxidative stress for cancer treatment. However, the insufficient amount of catalyst ions and ROS scavenging activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX4) limit the application of this approach. Therefore, a tailored strategy to regulate the Fenton reaction more efficiently (utilizing dual metal cations) and inhibit the GPX4 activity, is in great demand. Herein, a CDT system is based on dual (Fe2+ metals) iron pentacyanonitrosylferrate or iron nitroprusside (FeNP) having efficient ability to catalyze the reaction of endogenous H2O2 to form highly toxic OH species in cells. Additionally, FeNP is involved in ferroptosis via GPX4 inhibition. In particular, FeNP was structurally characterized, and it is noted that a minimum dose of FeNP is required to kill cancer cells while a comparable dose shows negligible toxicity on normal cells. Detailed in vitro studies confirmed that FeNP participates in sustaining apoptosis, as determined using the annexin V marker. Cellular uptake results showed that in a short time period, FeNP enters lysosomes and, due to the acidic lysosomal pH, releases Fe2+ ions, which are involved in ROS generation (OH species). Western blot analyses confirmed the suppression of GPX4 activity over time. Importantly, FeNP has a therapeutic effect on ovarian cancer organoids derived from High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC). Furthermore, FeNP showed biocompatible nature towards normal mouse liver organoids and in vivo. This work presents the effective therapeutic application of FeNP as an efficient Fenton agent along with ferroptosis inducer activity to improve CDT, through disturbing redox homeostasis
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