12 research outputs found

    How to Improve the Quality of Life of Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Hormone Therapy?

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    Prostate cancer (PC) is a hormone-sensitive tumor. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the cornerstone of systemic therapy for patients with intermediate or high-risk localized, recurrent, and metastatic prostate cancer. Although generally well tolerated, ADT can lead to short- and long-term adverse events that can worsen the quality of life of patients with PC. In the last decade, the introduction of novel generation androgen receptor pathway inhibitors (ARPI) has resulted in an improvement in the prognosis of patients with metastatic PC when used in combination with ADT. The use of ARPI in increasingly early stages of the disease determines a longer exposure of patients to these treatments. Although ARPIs are normally well-tolerated drugs, they generally cause an increase in toxicity compared to ADT alone, being able to worsen some adverse events already induced by ADT or leading to the development of specific side effects. Although there are no specific treatments for all the adverse events induced by hormonal therapies, it is essential to know the possible toxicities induced by the different treatments and to start procedures to prevent and/or recognize and consequently treat them early in order to not compromise the quality of life of the patients with PC. The aim of this review is to describe the adverse events induced by hormonal therapies. We will first describe the side effects induced by both ADT and ARPI and then the specific adverse events of the different ARPIs. Furthermore, we will try to highlight the possible therapeutic options to prevent or mitigate the toxicity induced by hormone therapies in order to improve the quality of life of the patients with PC

    Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Opioids in Patients with Solid Tumours: Is Their Association Safe? A Systematic Literature Review

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    Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent one of the most effective treatments for patients with cancer. As their activity relies on host immune system reactivity, the role of concomitant medications such as corticosteroids and antibiotics has been extensively evaluated. Preclinical data suggest that opioids may influence the immune system. Methods: a systematic literature revision was performed using specific keywords on the major search engines. Two authors analysed all the studies and provided a selection of the following inclusion and exclusion criteria, respectively: 1. data collection of patients older than 18 years old affected by solid tumours; 2. description of ICIs efficacy in terms of PFS, OS, TTF, and ORR; 3. concomitant ICIs-opioids treatment and 1. language different from English; 2. not pertinent analyses. Results: 523 studies were analysed, and 13 were selected and included in our series. A possible negative interaction between oral opioids and ICIs efficacy was observed. Most evidence was retrospective, and studies were heterogeneous. Conclusions: Even if oral opioids seem to impact negatively on ICIs efficacy in cancer patients, to date there is not sufficient evidence to avoid their prescription in this population

    Targeting KRAS in NSCLC: Old Failures and New Options for “Non-G12c” Patients

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    Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (KRAS) gene mutations are among the most common driver alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite their high frequency, valid treatment options are still lacking, mainly due to an intrinsic complexity of both the protein structure and the downstream pathway. The increasing knowledge about different mutation subtypes and co-mutations has paved the way to several promising therapeutic strategies. Despite the best results so far having been obtained in patients harbouring KRAS exon 2 p.G12C mutation, even the treatment landscape of non-p.G12C KRAS mutation positive patients is predicted to change soon. This review provides a comprehensive and critical overview of ongoing studies into NSCLC patients with KRAS mutations other than p.G12C and discusses future scenarios that will hopefully change the story of this disease

    Epstein-Barr virus-specific antibody response in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels and intrathecal synthesis of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 80 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients grouped according to clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease activity. Eighty patients with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 80 patients with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND) served as neurological controls. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were higher in OIND than in multiple sclerosis (p < 0.0001) and NIND (p < 0.01) for anti-viral-capsid-antigen (anti-VCA) IgG, in multiple sclerosis than in NIND (p < 0.01) and in OIND than in NIND (p < 0.05) for anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Serum levels were more elevated in OIND than in multiple sclerosis (p < 0.05) and in MRI inactive than in MRI active multiple sclerosis (p < 0.0001) for anti-VCA IgG, and in multiple sclerosis than in OIND and NIND (p < 0.01) for anti-EBNA-1 IgG. Serum titres of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA-1 IgG were also positively (p < 0.05) and inversely (p < 0.001) correlated, respectively, with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. An intrathecal IgG production of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA-1 IgG, as indicated by Antibody Index, was present only in a limited number of multiple sclerosis patients and controls (range from 1.3 to 6.3%). These findings do not support a direct pathogenetic role of EBV-targeted humoral immune response in multiple sclerosis
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