94 research outputs found

    Contesting Hybridity: <i>Evangelistas</i> and <i>Kataristas</i> in Highland Bolivia

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    Two of the most striking aspects of social change in recent decades in Latin America have been the rise of indigenist movements and the spread of evangelical Protestantism. To date they have been analysed separately, but this article shows that a comparison of the two in the context of Bolivia can prove highly productive. Although in many respects evangelismo and katarismo are diametrically opposed, there are some striking similarities. They draw their adherents from the same social base, undermine the notion of a homogeneous nation-state and also clearly reject the position of cultural mestizaje at the root of Bolivian state ideology. Thus, at a time when ‚Äėhybridised‚Äô cultural forms are supposed to be becoming more common in Latin America and around the world, these two social movements explicitly contest hybridity.</jats:p

    Indigenous Conflict in Bolivia Explored Through an African Lens: Towards a Comparative Analysis of Indigeneity

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    Since Evo Morales was first elected President of Bolivia in 2005, indigeneity has moved from being a language of protest to a language of governance with concomitant profound changes in how indigeneity is imagined and mobilized. However, one of the striking features of Morales's presidency is his administration's open conflict with various indigenous groups. Although a number of scholars have addressed these issues, they have largely focused on the peculiarities of the Bolivian example in a Latin American context; this has obscured the advantage of significant comparative analysis with other areas of the world. I argue that indigeneity as it is currently practiced and understood is a recent global phenomenon and that there are more similarities between African countries and Bolivia than is generally appreciated. In particular, scholarly debates surrounding the difference between autochthony and indigeneity, and the case of Cameroon in particular, have much to offer in our understanding of the Bolivian case. To date, the primary frame for understanding indigeneity is an ethnic/cultural one and this can obscure important similarities and differences between groups. The comparative framework presented here allows for the development of analytical tools to distinguish fundamental differences and conflicts in indigenous discourses. I distinguish between five related conceptual pairs: majoritarian and minoritarian discourses; claims on the state and claims against the state; de-territorialized peoples versus territorialized peoples; hegemonic and counterhegemonic indigeneity; and substantive versus symbolic indigeneity. These nested pairs allow for analytic distinctions between indigenous rights discourses without recourse to discussions of culture and authenticity

    El pasado en el presente: explorando historias indígenas en Bolivia

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    In this article I analyse the ways in which the inhabitants of an Aymara-speaking village understand history and their place within it and explores the profound differences between their historical consciousness and that of mainstream indigenous expression. This raises questions about how people relate to the past, the importance of the Conquest for indigenous peoples, and the consecuences for contemporary indigenous movements of the existence of an indigenous historical consciousness radically different to what is supposed all indigenous people share

    Learning ignorance and illiteracy through education: reflections on highland Bolivia

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    Literacy is clearly more than an ability to read or write in one language, and today we talk of multiple ‚Äėliteracies‚Äô. In each case, literacy represents education, knowledge and particularly the ability to get by competently in the world we inhabit; in short, it is about being a full citizen. This article looks at literacy, knowledge and schooling in a highland Aymara village in Bolivia, not in terms of what is being learned but rather in terms of what knowledge is lost through the process of schooling. Literacy and formal education do not liberate people but actually disempower them: while giving them one kind of knowledge, they can simultaneously act to make people ignorant. As with other indigenous peoples around the world, literacy pushes those in this village to see the knowledge of their parents and grandparents as valueless, and certainly not as something worth acquiring

    El indio desde adentro, el indio desde afuera: ciudadanía, raza y sexo en una comunidad boliviana

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    En este art√≠culo exploro las relaciones entre ciudadan√≠a, raza y sexo en la comunidad de Pocobaya, aldea andina de Bolivia, tomando en cuenta diversos aspectos de las relaciones entre hombres y mujeres. En relaci√≥n con las im√°genes sobre lo hisp√°nico y lo indio, se analizan las representaciones hegem√≥nicas de g√©nero, el papel de la escolarizaci√≥n, y la feminizaci√≥n de lo ind√≠gena en general y de los varones en particular como justificaci√≥n de la dominaci√≥n de los blancos, y la racializaci√≥n de tanto la dominaci√≥n de g√©nero como la dominaci√≥n pol√≠tica. Se analiza el papel nacionalizante y masculinizante tanto del ej√©rcito, mediante el servicio militar obligatorio, como de las minas. El contacto de los varones con la prostituci√≥n y la pornograf√≠a les permite comparar su imagen de la sexualidad de los blancos con la t√≠pica de pocobaye√Īos y pocobaye√Īas. La falta de contacto de las mujeres con la lengua castellana y la cultura ¬ęblanca¬Ľ las hace doblemente alejadas de lo que se valora en la ciudadan√≠a boliviana. Las ideas hegem√≥nicas de raza y g√©nero se reproducen a varios niveles en las vidas de los campesinos, lo cual crea tensiones ya que diferentes modelos normativos de g√©nero entran en conflicto. En algunas ocasiones los hombres reproducen las jerarqu√≠as de g√©nero y raza en instancias de violencia conyugal, tratando a sus esposas como ¬ęindias sucias¬Ľ

    El indio desde adentro, el indio desde afuera: ciudadanía, raza y sexo en una comunidad boliviana

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    En este art√≠culo exploro las relaciones entre ciudadan√≠a, raza y sexo en la comunidad de Pocobaya, aldea andina de Bolivia, tomando en cuenta diversos aspectos de las relaciones entre hombres y mujeres. En relaci√≥n con las im√°genes sobre lo hisp√°nico y lo indio, se analizan las representaciones hegem√≥nicas de g√©nero, el papel de la escolarizaci√≥n, y la feminizaci√≥n de lo ind√≠gena en general y de los varones en particular como justificaci√≥n de la dominaci√≥n de los blancos, y la racializaci√≥n de tanto la dominaci√≥n de g√©nero como la dominaci√≥n pol√≠tica. Se analiza el papel nacionalizante y masculinizante tanto del ej√©rcito, mediante el servicio militar obligatorio, como de las minas. El contacto de los varones con la prostituci√≥n y la pornograf√≠a les permite comparar su imagen de la sexualidad de los blancos con la t√≠pica de pocobaye√Īos y pocobaye√Īas. La falta de contacto de las mujeres con la lengua castellana y la cultura ¬ęblanca¬Ľ las hace doblemente alejadas de lo que se valora en la ciudadan√≠a boliviana. Las ideas hegem√≥nicas de raza y g√©nero se reproducen a varios niveles en las vidas de los campesinos, lo cual crea tensiones ya que diferentes modelos normativos de g√©nero entran en conflicto. En algunas ocasiones los hombres reproducen las jerarqu√≠as de g√©nero y raza en instancias de violencia conyugal, tratando a sus esposas como ¬ęindias sucias¬Ľ

    Ethnic Elder Poverty: Miao Household Livelihoods and Elderly Self-Sufficiency Practices in Midwest China

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    Within the existing literature on livelihoods, there is a paucity of research examining the livelihood of the elderly from ethnic communities, and of the few studies on elderly livelihoods, scholars tend to focus on their agricultural labor engagement and ignore other forms of activity. In this study, we investigate the elderly livelihood choices and the multiple survival practices in a Miao town in China’s Midwest, which was chosen as the first case for the Targeted Poverty Alleviation (TPA) program. Using the dual lenses of age and ethnicity, we describe the history of household livelihoods in the region, and how agricultural participation, the production of ethnic artisan goods, and ritual practices are uniquely employed by Miao elders (compared to their Han peers) to achieve self-sufficiency. We consider how being Miao has certain advantages in tackling elder poverty. Alongside agricultural labor, Miao elders can engage in recognized handicrafts for sale; they can also engage in customary ritual practices as a recognized ethnic minority which would otherwise be prohibited and contribute to social cohesion. This is the first anthropological study conducted in Midwest China that centers on the livelihood and practices of age-advanced group with an ethnic identity in a globally ageing context

    The Strategic Mobilisation of the Border in Gibraltar: The Postcolonial (Re)Production of Privilege and Exclusion

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    The border separating/unifying Gibraltar with Spain is reproduced in public discourse as a threat and an obstacle to the normalisation of political life in the small enclave. Yet, an in-depth socio-historical analysis of local cross-border relations over the 20th century, shows how the Gibraltarian national identity and local government originate from the border rather than in opposition to it. The fencing of the frontier imposed by the Franco’s regime between 1969-1985 allows the discursive (re)production of a Gibraltarian identity distinct from that of the Spanish neighbours - and, in part, from that of the English colonisers

    Hygiene and biosecurity protocols reduce infection prevalence but do not improve fledging success in an endangered parrot

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    Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) are recognised as global extinction drivers of threatened species. Unfortunately, biodiversity managers have few tested solutions to manage them when often the desperate need for solutions necessitates a response. Here we test in situ biosecurity protocols to assess the efficacy of managing Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), one of the most common and emergent viral diseases in wild parrots (Psittaciformes) that is currently affecting numerous threatened species globally. In response to an outbreak of PBFD in Mauritius ‚Äúecho‚ÄĚ parakeets (Psittacula eques), managers implemented a set of biosecurity protocols to limit transmission and impact of Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). Here we used a reciprocal design experiment on the wild population to test whether BFDV management reduced viral prevalence and viral load, and improved nestling body condition and fledge success. Whilst management reduced the probability of nestling infection by approximately 11% there was no observed impact on BFDV load and nestling body condition. In contrast to expectations there was lower fledge success in nests with added BFDV biosecurity (83% in untreated vs. 79% in treated nests). Our results clearly illustrate that management for wildlife conservation should be critically evaluated through targeted monitoring and experimental manipulation, and this evaluation should always focus on the fundamental objective of conservation
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