22 research outputs found

    Rewriting History: A Study of How the History of the Civil War Has Changed in Textbooks from 1876 to 2014

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    History textbooks provide an interesting perspective into the views and attitudes of their respective time period. The way textbooks portray certain events and groups of people has a profound impact on the way children learn to view those groups and events. That impact then has the potential to trickle down to future generations, fabricating a historical narrative that sometimes avoids telling the whole truth, or uses selective wording to sway opinions on certain topics. This paper analyzes the changes seen in how the Civil War is written about in twelve textbooks dated from 1876 to 2014. Notable topics of discussion include the discussion of slaves and slavery, as well as the recognition, or lack of, the impact of minority groups. Many changes were traced, some for the worse, and quite a few for the better. Despite the efforts to make history textbooks more inclusive and unbiased, there is still much room for improvement, especially in regard to facing race relations and the causes behind the bloodiest war ever fought on American soil

    Type 1 diabetes: translating mechanistic observations into effective clinical outcomes

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    Type 1 diabetes remains an important health problem, particularly in Western countries where the incidence has been increasing in younger children(1). In 1986, Eisenbarth described Type 1 diabetes as a chronic autoimmune disease. Work over the past 3 œ decades has identified many of the genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors that are involved in the disease and have led to hypotheses concerning its pathogenesis. Based on these findings, clinical trials have been conducted to test these hypotheses but have had mixed results. In this review, we discuss the findings that have led to current concepts of the disease mechanisms, how this understanding has prompted clinical studies, and the results of these studies. The findings from preclinical and clinical studies support the original proposed model for how type 1 diabetes develops, but have also suggested that this disease is more complex than originally thought and will require broader treatment approaches

    Monitoring Programs of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico: Inventory, Development and Use of a Large Monitoring Database to Map Fish and Invertebrate Spatial Distributions

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    Since the onset of fisheries science, monitoring programs have been implemented to support stock assessments and fisheries management. Here, we take inventory of the monitoring programs of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (GOM) surveying fish and invertebrates and conduct a gap analysis of these programs. We also compile a large monitoring database encompassing much of the monitoring data collected in the U.S. GOM using random sampling schemes and employ this database to fit statistical models to then map the spatial distributions of 61 fish and invertebrate functional groups, species and life stages of the U.S. GOM. Finally, we provide recommendations for improving current monitoring programs and designing new programs, and guidance for more comprehensive use and sharing of monitoring data, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the inputs provided to stock assessments and ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) projects in the U.S. GOM. Our inventory revealed that 73 fisheries-independent and fisheries-dependent programs have been conducted in the U.S. GOM, most of which (85%) are still active. One distinctive feature of monitoring programs of the U.S. GOM is that they include many fisheries-independent surveys conducted almost year-round, contrasting with most other marine regions. A major sampling recommendation is the development of a coordinated strategy for collecting diet information by existing U.S. GOM monitoring programs for advancing EBFM