304 research outputs found

    Happy?? Slapping??

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    For a few years now in Australia and worldwide cyber bullying has been the 'new' buzz word in student bullying. Now, however, 'happy slapping' seems to have usurped that place. While cyber bullying is defined as bullying through any kind of technology, happy slapping combines both face-to-face physical violence and technology. But is it actually bullying? And is it a school responsibility

    Why cybersafety tips don’t work for cyberbullying

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    Research into cyberbullying in Australia has been slow. This is partly because rigorous research takes time, both to conduct, to analyse and to publish. In addition, Australian governments and other decision makers did not realise that cyberbullying was happening until there was greater media attention to the problem in the last few years. This meant that there was no serious research money allocated to cyberbullying research in Australia until about two years ago. In addition, initial research has mainly looked at how many students have been cyberbullied and what were the consequences. As far as I know there is only one large research project which is looking at what programs actually work to prevent and/or intervene in cyberbullying in Australia and that will take time to ascertain. However, our society wants quick fixes and they want a quick fix for cyberbullying

    Structural Characterization of Monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids and Dihydroxy- and Trihydroxyeicosatrienoic Acids by ESI-FTICR

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    The fragmentation characteristics of monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and dihydroxy- and trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were investigated by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry using sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). The fragmentation patterns of these compounds were associated with the number and positions of the hydroxyl substituents. The fragmentation is more complicated with increasing number of the hydroxyl groups of the compounds. In general, the major carbon–carbon cleavage of [M − H]− ions occurred at the α-position to the hydroxyl group, and the carbon–carbon cleavage occurred when there was a double-bond at the β-position to the hydroxyl group. SORI-CID and IRMPD produced some common fragmentation patterns; however, each technique provided some unique patterns that are useful for structural identification of these compounds. This study demonstrated the application of FTICR via the identification of regioisomers of trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids in rabbit aorta samples

    The health of women and girls determines the health and well-being of our modern world: A White Paper From the International Council on Women's Health Issues

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    The International Council on Women's Health Issues (ICOWHI) is an international nonprofit association dedicated to the goal of promoting health, health care, and well-being of women and girls throughout the world through participation, empowerment, advocacy, education, and research. We are a multidisciplinary network of women's health providers, planners, and advocates from all over the globe. We constitute an international professional and lay network of those committed to improving women and girl's health and quality of life. This document provides a description of our organization mission, vision, and commitment to improving the health and well-being of women and girls globally

    Omega-3 Fatty Acids Reduce Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Subjects with Insulin Resistance

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    Fish oils (FOs) have anti-inflammatory effects and lower serum triglycerides. This study examined adipose and muscle inflammatory markers after treatment of humans with FOs and measured the effects of ω-3 fatty acids on adipocytes and macrophages in vitro. Insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects were treated with Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters (4 g/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels were reduced by FO, but the levels of other cytokines were unchanged. The adipose (but not muscle) of FO-treated subjects demonstrated a decrease in macrophages, a decrease in MCP-1, and an increase in capillaries, and subjects with the most macrophages demonstrated the greatest response to treatment. Adipose and muscle ω-3 fatty acid content increased after treatment; however, there was no change in insulin sensitivity or adiponectin. In vitro, M1-polarized macrophages expressed high levels of MCP-1. The addition of ω-3 fatty acids reduced MCP-1 expression with no effect on TNF-α. In addition, ω-3 fatty acids suppressed the upregulation of adipocyte MCP-1 that occurred when adipocytes were cocultured with macrophages. Thus, FO reduced adipose macrophages, increased capillaries, and reduced MCP-1 expression in insulin-resistant humans and in macrophages and adipocytes in vitro; however, there was no measureable effect on insulin sensitivity. Diabetes 62:1709–1717, 201

    Protocol for stage 1 of the GaP study (Genetic testing acceptability for Paget's disease of bone): an interview study about genetic testing and preventive treatment: would relatives of people with Paget's disease want testing and treatment if they were available?

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    BACKGROUND: Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is characterised by focal increases in bone turnover, affecting one or more bones throughout the skeleton. This disrupts normal bone architecture and causes pain, deformity, deafness, osteoarthritis, and fractures. Genetic factors are recognised to play a role in PDB and it is now possible to carry out genetic tests for research. In view of this, it is timely to investigate the clinical potential for a programme of genetic testing and preventative treatment for people who have a family history of PDB, to prevent or delay the development of PDB. Evidence from non-genetic conditions, that have effective treatments, demonstrates that patients' beliefs may affect the acceptability and uptake of treatment. Two groups of beliefs (illness and treatment representations) are likely to be influential. Illness representations describe how people see their illness, as outlined in Leventhal's Self-Regulation Model. Treatment representations describe how people perceive potential treatment for their disease. People offered a programme of genetic testing and treatment will develop their own treatment representations based on what is offered, but the beliefs rather than the objective programme of treatment are likely to determine their willingness to participate. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is a theoretical model that predicts behaviours from people's beliefs about the consequences, social pressures and perceived control over the behaviour, including uptake of treatment. METHODS/DESIGN: This study aims to examine the acceptability of genetic testing, followed by preventative treatment, to relatives of people with PDB. We aim to interview people with Paget's disease, and their families, from the UK. Our research questions are: 1. What do individuals with Paget's disease think would influence the involvement of their relatives in a programme of genetic testing and preventative treatment? 2. What do relatives of Paget's disease sufferers think would influence them in accepting an offer of a programme of genetic testing and preventative treatment? DISCUSSION: Our research will be informed by relevant psychological theory: primarily the Self-Regulation Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The results of these interviews will inform the development of a separate questionnaire-based study to explore these research questions in greater detail

    New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk.

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    Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes

    Piloting a new approach in primary care to identify, assess and support carers of people with terminal illnesses:a feasibility study

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    BACKGROUND: General practices in the United Kingdom are encouraged to have a protocol for the identification of carers and a mechanism for social care referral. However, a minority of carers are identified and those caring for someone with a terminal illness often cope until the situation becomes overwhelming. Earlier identification could enable more timely support. The aim of this project was to model and pilot a systematic approach to identify, assess and support carers of people with supportive and palliative care needs in primary care. METHOD: The intervention was modelled on the Medical Research Council complex intervention framework with a preliminary theoretical phase, which has been reported elsewhere. In this study, which lasted 12 months, four general practices were recruited. Each practice identified a ‘carer liaison’ person to take the lead in identifying carers, followed by assessment and support using a toolkit modelled from the earlier phase. Qualitative evaluation interviews were conducted with carers who had received the intervention and the carer liaisons and general practitioners in the pilot practices. A stakeholder event was held to disseminate and deliberate the findings. RESULTS: The practices’ populations ranged from 5840 to 10832 patients and across the four practices, 83 carers were identified. Thirty six carers were identified from practice registers (disease - 16; palliative care - 9; carer - 11; advanced care plan - 12), whilst 28 were identified opportunistically by practice staff at appointments or at home. Seven carers self-identified. Overall, 81 carers received the carer pack and 25 returned the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) form. Eleven carers received a follow up call from the practice to discuss support and 12 were also referred/signposted for support. Qualitative interviews suggest carers valued connection with their practices but the paperwork in the toolkit was onerous. CONCLUSION: This approach to identifying and supporting carers was acceptable, but success was dependent on engagement within the whole practice. Carers did not tend to self-identify, nor ask for help. Practices need to proactively identify carers using existing opportunities, resources and computer systems, and also adopt a public health approach to raise carer awareness and perceived support within their communities

    Development of a nurse home visitation intervention for intimate partner violence

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Despite an increase in knowledge about the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV), much less is known about interventions to reduce IPV and its associated impairment. One program that holds promise in preventing IPV and improving outcomes for women exposed to violence is the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), an evidence-based nurse home visitation program for socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. The present study developed an intervention model and modification process to address IPV within the context of the NFP. This included determining the extent to which the NFP curriculum addressed the needs of women at risk for IPV or its recurrence, along with client, nurse and broader stakeholder perspectives on how best to help NFP clients cope with abusive relationships.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Following a preliminary needs assessment, an exploratory multiple case study was conducted to identify the core components of the proposed IPV intervention. This included qualitative interviews with purposeful samples of NFP clients and community stakeholders, and focus groups with nurse home visitors recruited from four NFP sites. Conventional content analysis and constant comparison guided data coding and synthesis. A process for developing complex interventions was then implemented.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Based on data from 69 respondents, an IPV intervention was developed that focused on identifying and responding to IPV; assessing a client's level of safety risk associated with IPV; understanding the process of leaving and resolving an abusive relationship and system navigation. A need was identified for the intervention to include both universal elements of healthy relationships and those tailored to a woman's specific level of readiness to promote change within her life. A clinical pathway guides nurses through the intervention, with a set of facilitators and corresponding instructions for each component.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>NFP clients, nurses and stakeholders identified the need for modifications to the existing NFP program; this led to the development of an intervention that includes universal and targeted components to assist NFP nurses in addressing IPV with their clients. Plans for feasibility testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of the IPV intervention embedded within the NFP, and compared to NFP-only, are discussed.</p
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