100 research outputs found

    Liver resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: a retrospective case series

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    Abstract Introduction Despite the effectiveness of new therapies and awareness campaigns, the number of seropositive patients is increasing every year. Recently, other causes of death, not directly related to HIV, have emerged, such as chronic liver disease. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is seven times greater in HIV patients than in noninfected patients, and it is especially attributable to HCV infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of HCC in HIV-HCV co-infected patients after liver resection (LR). Materials and methods The current study was conducted on a prospective database and reviewed retrospectively. All consecutive patients with HCC treated by LR from January 2013 to March 2019 at the Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan were enrolled. We included patients older than 18 years of age with HCV-related HCC, and in this set of patients, we identified two groups based on the presence of HIV infection. Results We identified 16 patients with HCV infection and precisely five with HIV-HCV co-infection and eleven with HCV infection alone. All HIV patients were male against 72.7% in the non-HIV group (p = 0.509). All patients had optimal HIV virologic control and a normal CD4 T-cell count. The mean diagnosis-to-treatment interval was statistically different between the two groups (HIV versus non-HIV: 1.2 ± 0.55 months versus 2.39 ± 1.09 months, p = 0.039). No other significant differences were found between HIV-HCV co-infected patients and HCV-infected patients. Long-term outcomes in terms of OS and RFS were similar between the two groups. Conclusions With a multidisciplinary approach and intensive support, LR can be a safe and efficacious procedure in HIV-HCV patients. For these reasons, we should not exclude potential patients merely on the basis of their HIV seropositivity

    Extended Overview of Ocular Phenotype with Recent Advances in Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

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    The term ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) describes a heterogeneous group of inherited developmental disorders that affect several tissues of ectodermal origin. The most common form of EDs is hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), which is characterized by hypodontia, hypotrichosis, and partial or total eccrine sweat gland deficiency. HED is estimated to affect at least 1 in 17,000 people worldwide. Patients with HED have characteristic facies with periorbital hyperpigmentation, depressed nasal bridge, malar hypoplasia, and absent or sparse eyebrows and eyelashes. The common ocular features of HED include madarosis, trichiasis, and ocular chronic surface disease due to dry eye syndrome, which manifests clinically with discomfort, photophobia, and redness. Dry eye is common in HED and results from a combination of ocular surface defects: mucus abnormalities (abnormal conjunctival mucinous glands), aqueous tear deficiency (abnormalities in the lacrimal gland) and lipid deficiency (due to the partial or total absence of the meibomian glands; modified sebaceous glands with the tarsal plate). Sight-threatening complications result from ocular surface disease, including corneal ulceration and perforation with subsequent corneal scarring and neovascularization. Rare ocular features have been reported and include bilateral or unilateral congenital cataracts, bilateral glaucoma, chorioretinal atrophy and atresia of the nasolacrimal duct. Recognition of the ocular manifestations of HED is required to perform clinical surveillance, instigate supportive and preventative treatment, and manage ocular complications

    Breast cancer cells treated with proton beam: Immunological features and gene signatures

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    The breast cancer (BC) disease is characterized by a wide heterogeneity at both clinical and molecular level, showing distinct subtypes with different clinical outcomes. Thus, the choice of the therapeutic plan, such as the type of radiotherapy (RT) need to take into account this complexity. Indeed, the proton therapy (PT) shows a medical benefit compared to conventional X-ray RT, as regards the localized delivery of the radiation dose sparing health tissues, but few data regarding proton-induced molecular changes are currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the production of immunological molecules and gene expression profiles induced by proton irradiation on BC cell lines. Clonogenic survival assay, luminex assay and cDNA microarray gene expression analyses were performed both in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A cell line and in two tumorigenic MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, following irradiation with 0.5, 2 and 9 Gy of clinical proton beams. We found that proton irradiation induced gene expression changes useful to define a cell line and dose-dependent gene signatures. The lack of molecular data in the literature can be filled by data here presented that could represent a useful tool to better understand the molecular mechanisms elicited by protons predicting the treatment outcome

    Evaluation of Proton-Induced Biomolecular Changes in MCF-10A Breast Cells by Means of FT-IR Microspectroscopy

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    Radiotherapy (RT) with accelerated beams of charged particles (protons and carbon ions), also known as hadrontherapy, is a treatment modality that is increasingly being adopted thanks to the several benefits that it grants compared to conventional radiotherapy (CRT) treatments performed by means of high-energy photons/electrons. Hence, information about the biomolecular effects in exposed cells caused by such particles is needed to better realize the underlying radiobiological mechanisms and to improve this therapeutic strategy. To this end, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (-FT-IR) can be usefully employed, in addition to long-established radiobiological techniques, since it is currently considered a helpful tool for examining radiation-induced cellular changes. In the present study, MCF-10A breast cells were chosen to evaluate the effects of proton exposure using -FT-IR. They were exposed to different proton doses and fixed at various times after exposure to evaluate direct effects due to proton exposure and the kinetics of DNA damage repair. Irradiated and control cells were examined in transflection mode using low-e substrates that have been recently demonstrated to offer a fast and direct way to examine proton-exposed cells. The acquired spectra were analyzed using a deconvolution procedure and a ratiometric approach, both of which showed the different contributions of DNA, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate cell components. These changes were particularly significant for cells fixed 48 and 72 h after exposure. Lipid changes were related to variations in membrane fluidity, and evidence of DNA damage was highlighted. The analysis of the Amide III band also indicated changes that could be related to different enzyme contributions in DNA repair

    Neoadjuvant Treatments for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Where We Are and Where We Are Going

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    Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents a challenging disease for the surgeon, oncologist, and radiation oncologist in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings. Surgery is currently the gold standard treatment, but the role of neoadjuvant treatment (NAD) is constantly evolving and gaining importance in resectable PDACs. The aim of this narrative review is to report the state of the art and future perspectives of neoadjuvant therapy in patients with PDAC. Methods: A PubMed database search of articles published up to September 2022 was carried out. Results: Many studies showed that FOLFIRINOX or Gemcitabine-nab- paclitaxel in a neoadjuvant setting had a relevant impact on overall survival (OS) for patients with locally advanced and borderline resectable PDAC without increasing post-operative complications. To date, there have not been many published multicentre randomised trials comparing upfront surgery with NAD in resectable PDAC patients, but the results obtained are promising. NAD in resectable PDAC showed long-term effective benefits in terms of median OS (5-year OS rate 20.5% in NAD group vs. 6.5% in upfront surgery). NAD could play a role in the treatment of micro- metastatic disease and lymph nodal involvement. In this scenario, given the low sensitivity and specificity for lymph-node metastases of radiological investigations, CA 19-9 could be an additional tool in the decision-making process. Conclusions: The future challenge could be to identify only selected patients who will really benefit from upfront surgery despite a combination of NAD and surgery

    Preliminary study of novel SRC tyrosine kinase inhibitor and proton therapy combined effect on glioblastoma multiforme cell line: In vitro evaluation of target therapy for the enhancement of protons effectiveness

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    The aim of this work was to evaluate proton therapy effectiveness in combination with a molecule SRC protein inhibitor for glioblastoma multiforme treatment. The role of this novel compound, Si306, is to interfere with glioblastoma carcinogenesis and progression, creating a radiosensitivity condition. The experiments were performed on U87 human glioblastoma multiforme cell line. Molecule concentrations of 10 μM and 20μM were tested in combination with proton irradiation doses of 2, 4, 10 and 21Gy. Cell survival evaluation was performed by clonogenic assay. The results showed that Si306 increases the efficacy of proton therapy reducing the surviving cells fraction significantly compared to treatment with protons only. These studies will support the preclinical phase realization, in order to evaluate proton therapy effects and molecularly targeted drug combined treatments

    FT-IR Transflection Micro-Spectroscopy Study on Normal Human Breast Cells after Exposure to a Proton Beam

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    Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (mu-FT-IR) is nowadays considered a valuable tool for investigating the changes occurring in human cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. Recently, considerable attention has been devoted to the use of this optical technique in the study of cells exposed to proton beams, that are being increasingly adopted in cancer therapy. Different experimental configurations are used for proton irradiation and subsequent spectra acquisition. To facilitate the use of mu-FT-IR, it may be useful to investigate new experimental approaches capable of speeding up and simplifying the irradiation and measurements phases. Here, we propose the use of low-e-substrates slides for cell culture, allowing the irradiation and spectra acquisition in transflection mode in a fast and direct way. In recent years, there has been a wide debate about the validity of these supports, but many researchers agree that the artifacts due to the presence of the electromagnetic standing wave effects are negligible in many practical cases. We investigated human normal breast cells (MCF-10 cell line) fixed immediately after the irradiation with graded proton radiation doses (0, 0.5, 2, and 4 Gy). The spectra obtained in transflection geometry showed characteristics very similar to those present in the spectra acquired in transmission geometry and confirm the validity of the chosen approach. The analysis of spectra indicates the occurrence of significant changes in DNA and lipids components of cells. Modifications in protein secondary structure are also evidenced

    Revitalizing an important field in biophysics: The new frontiers of molecular crowding

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    Taking into account the presence of the crowded environment of a macromolecule has been an important goal of biology over the past 20 years. Molecular crowding affects the motions, stability and the kinetic behaviour of proteins. New powerful approaches have recently been developed to study molecular crowding, some of which make use of the synchrotron radiation light. The meeting “New Frontiers in Molecular Crowding” was organized in July 2022at the European Synchrotron Radiation facility of Grenoble to discuss the new frontiers of molecular crowding. The workshop brought together researchers from different disciplines to highlight the new developments of the field, including areas where new techniques allow the scientists to gain unprecedently expected information. A key conclusion of the meeting was the need to build an international and interdisciplinary research community through enhanced communication, resource-sharing, and educational initiatives that could let the molecular crowding field flourish further

    The tattooed population in Italy: a national survey on demography, characteristics and perception of health risks

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    Background. In recent years, Italy has seen a constant upward trend in the practice of tattooing. The Italian National Health Institute has conducted a national survey to determine the prevalence of tattooed people in Italy and to study related features of the phenomenon. Aim. Establish the prevalence and characteristics of the tattooed population and evaluate awareness of the risks associated with tattoos, which can contribute to consumer health protection. Methods. Computer-assisted telephone interviews and computer-assisted web interviews were completed by a sample of the general population; 7608 people aged between 12 and 75+. Results. The prevalence of tattooed people was 12.8% of the general population in Italy (95% CI: 12.05%-13.55%), equivalent to an estimated 6 900 000 tattooed individuals. Tattoos were more prevalent among women, at 13.8%, while tattooed men accounted for 11.8%. The vast majority of tattooed subjects had decorative tattoos of small dimensions, with a higher prevalence of monochromatic tattoos. Only a minority of tattooed participants reported having cosmetic tattoos (3.0%) or medical tattoos (0.5%). According to the data, 3.3% of tattooed subjects claimed complications or reactions; of these, only 21.3% consulted a dermatologist/general practitioner; more than half (51.3%) did not consult anyone. In general, only 58.2% of the sample were aware of health risks. The Italian survey showed that 36.7% of all tattoos had been performed in the last five years prior to the interview. Conclusions. The estimated prevalence of tattoos in Italy is in agreement with the statistics of the European Union. The prevalence in the age group 35-44 years is almost double that of the Italian population and it is higher in women than in men. Tattooing is relevant to public health. The high number of tattooed Italians, the potential long-term effects on health and the reported complications call for the awareness of health authorities. Appropriate intervention should ensure safer tattooing by reinforcing the training of tattooists, by improving surveillance and by providing information to raise public awareness of the risks and contraindications of tattooing.

    Transcriptional modulations induced by proton irradiation in mice skin in function of adsorbed dose and distance

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    Hadron therapy by proton beams represents an advanced anti-cancer strategy due to its highly localized dose deposition allowing a greater sparing of normal tissue and/or organs at risk compared to photon/electron radiotherapy. However, it is not clear to what extent non-targeted effects such as transcriptional modulations produced along the beamline may diffuse and impact the surrounding tissue. In this work, we analyze the transcriptome of proton-irradiated mouse skin and choose two biomarker genes to trace their modulation at different distances from the beam's target and at different doses and times from irradiation to understand to what extent and how far it may propagate, using RNA-Seq and quantitative RT-PCR. In parallel, assessment of lipids alteration is performed by FTIR spectroscopy as a measure of tissue damage. Despite the observed high individual variability of expression, we can show evidence of transcriptional modulation of two biomarker genes at considerable distance from the beam's target where a simulation system predicts a significantly lower adsorbed dose. The results are compatible with a model involving diffusion of transcripts or regulatory molecules from high dose irradiated cells to distant tissue's portions adsorbing a much lower fraction of radiation
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