26,805 research outputs found

    Theoretical study of the finite temperature spectroscopy in van der Waals clusters. III Solvated Chromophore as an effective diatomics

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    The absorption spectroscopy of calcium-doped argon clusters is described in terms of an effective diatomics molecule Ca-(Ar_n), in the framework of semiclassical vertical transitions. We show how, upon choosing a suitable reaction coordinate, the effective finite-temperature equilibrium properties can be obtained for the ground- and excited-surfaces from the potential of mean force (PMF). An extension of the recent multiple range random-walk method is used to calculate the PMF over continuous intervals of distances. The absorption spectra calculated using this single-coordinate description are found to be in good agreement with the spectra obtained from high-statistics Monte Carlo data, in various situations. For CaAr13_{13}, we compare the performances of two different choices of the reaction coordinate. For CaAr_37, the method is seen to be accurate enough to distinguish between different low-energy structures. Finally, the idea of casting the initial many-body problem into a single degree of freedom problem is tested on the spectroscopy of calcium in bulk solid argon.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figure

    Unconditional jetting

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    Capillary jetting of a fluid dispersed into another immiscible phase is usually limited by a critical Capillary number, a function of the Reynolds number and the fluid properties ratios. Critical conditions are set when the minimum spreading velocity of small perturbations v‚ąí‚ąóv^*_- along the jet (marginal stability velocity) is zero. Here we identify and describe parametrical regions of high technological relevance, where v‚ąí‚ąó>0v^*_- > 0 and the jet flow is always supercritical independently of the dispersed liquid flow rate: within these relatively broad regions, the jet does not undergo the usual dripping-jetting transition, so that either the jet can be made arbitrarily thin (yielding droplets of any imaginably small size), or the issued flow rate can be made arbitrarily small. In this work, we provide illustrative analytical studies of asymptotic cases for both negligible and dominant inertia forces. In this latter case, requiring a non-zero jet surface velocity, axisymmetric perturbation waves ``surf'' downstream for all given wave numbers while the liquid bulk can remain static. In the former case (implying small Reynolds flow) we found that the jet profile small slope is limited by a critical value; different published experiments support our predictions.Comment: Submitted first (24-August-2008) to Physics of Fluids, withdrawn from that journal on 6-April-2008, and submitted to Physical Review E the same da

    The scaling of exploding liquid jets under intense X-ray pulses

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    A general scaling of the evolution of an exploding liquid jet under an ultra short and intense X-ray pulse from a X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is proposed. A general formulation of the conservation of energy for blasts in vacuum partially against a deformable object leads to a compact expression that governs the evolution of the gap produced by the explosion. The theoretical analysis contemplates two asymptotic stages for small and large times from the initiation of the blast. A complete dimensional analysis of the problem and an optimal collapse of experimental data reveal that the universal approximate analytical solution proposed is in remarkable agreement with experiments

    Scaling laws of top jet drop size and speed from bubble bursting including gravity and inviscid limit

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    Jet droplets from bubble bursting are determined by a limited parametrical space: the liquid properties (surface tension, viscosity, and density), mother bubble size and acceleration of gravity. Thus, the two resulting parameters from dimensional analysis (usually, the Ohnesorge and Bond numbers, Oh and Bo) completely define this phenomenon when both the trapped gas in the bubble and the environment gas have negligible density. A detailed physical description of the ejection process to model both the ejected droplet radius and its initial launch speed is provided, leading to a scaling law including both Oh and Bo. Two critical values of Oh determine two limiting situations: one (Oh1_1=0.038) is the critical value for which the ejected droplet size is minimum and the ejection speed maximum, and the other (Oh2_2=0.0045) is a new critical value which signals when viscous effects vanish. Gravity effects (Bo) are consistently introduced from energy conservation principles. The proposed scaling laws produce a remarkable collapse of published experimental measurements collected for both the ejected droplet radius and ejection speed.Comment: 14 pages, three figures, published in 2018 in Physical Review Fluid

    Risk stratifiers for arrhythmic and non-arrhythmic mortality after acute myocardial infarction

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    Open Access. Publicado online: 2-Jul-2018The effective discrimination between patients at risk of Arrhythmic Mortality (AM) and Non-Arrhythmic Mortality (NAM) constitutes one of the important unmet clinical needs. Successful risk assessment based on Electrocardiography (ECG) records is greatly improved by the combination of different indices reflecting not only the pathological substrate but also the autonomic regulation of cardiac electrophysiology. This study assesses the cardiac risk stratification capacity of two new Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters, Breath Concurrence 6 (BC6) -sinusoidal RR variability of 6 heart beats per breath cycle- and Primary Ectopia (PE) -presence of early ventricular contractions of any etiology- together with the Deceleration Capacity (DC). While BC6 characterizes the response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, PE qualifies autonomic cardiac electrophysiology. The analysis of the European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial (EMIAT) database indicates that BC6 is related with the risk of Arrhythmic Mortality (AM) and PE with the risk of Non-Arrhythmic Mortality. BC6 is the only single parameter that significantly discriminates between AM and NAM. While the combination of BC6 and DC contributes to the identification of AM risk, PE together with DC improves the prediction of NAM in patients with severe ischemic heart disease

    Kinetic approach to the cluster liquid-gas transition

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    The liquid-gas transition in free atomic clusters is investigated theoretically based on simple unimolecular rate theories and assuming sequential evaporations. A kinetic Monte Carlo scheme is used to compute the time-dependent properties of clusters undergoing multiple dissociations, and two possible definitions of the boiling point are proposed, relying on the cluster or gas temperature. This numerical approach is supported by molecular dynamics simulations of clusters made of sodium atoms or C60 molecules, as well as simplified rate equation
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