628 research outputs found

    Full Scale Proton Beam Impact Testing of new CERN Collimators and Validation of a Numerical Approach for Future Operation

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    New collimators are being produced at CERN in the framework of a large particle accelerator upgrade project to protect beam lines against stray particles. Their movable jaws hold low density absorbers with tight geometric requirements, while being able to withstand direct proton beam impacts. Such events induce considerable thermo-mechanical loads, leading to complex structural responses, which make the numerical analysis challenging. Hence, an experiment has been developed to validate the jaw design under representative conditions and to acquire online results to enhance the numerical models. Two jaws have been impacted by high-intensity proton beams in a dedicated facility at CERN and have recreated the worst possible scenario in future operation. The analysis of online results coupled to post-irradiation examinations have demonstrated that the jaw response remains in the elastic domain. However, they have also highlighted how sensitive the jaw geometry is to its mounting support inside the collimator. Proton beam impacts, as well as handling activities, may alter the jaw flatness tolerance value by ±\pm 70 μ{\mu}m, whereas the flatness tolerance requirement is 200 μ{\mu}m. In spite of having validated the jaw design for this application, the study points out numerical limitations caused by the difficulties in describing complex geometries and boundary conditions with such unprecedented requirements.Comment: 22 pages, 17 figures, Prepared for submission to JINS

    Optimization of neutrino fluxes for future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

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    One of the main goals of the Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation experiment (LBNO) experiment is to study the L/E behaviour of the electron neutrino appearance probability in order to determine the unknown phase δCP\delta_{CP}. In the standard neutrino 3-flavour mixing paradigm, this parameter encapsulates a possibility of a CP violation in the lepton sector that in turn could help explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. In LBNO, the measurement of δCP\delta_{CP} would rely on the observation of the electron appearance probability in a broad energy range covering the 1st^{st} and 2nd^{nd} maxima of the oscillation probability. An optimization of the energy spectrum of the neutrino beam is necessary to find the best coverage of the neutrino energies of interest. This in general is a complex task that requires exploring a large parameter space describing hadron target and beamline focusing elements. In this paper we will present a numerical approach of finding a solution to this difficult optimization problem often encountered in design of modern neutrino beamlines and we will show the improved LBNO sensitivity to the presence of the leptonic CP violation attained after the neutrino beam optimization

    Optimization of neutrino fluxes for future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

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    AbstractOne of the main goals of the Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation experiment (LBNO) experiment is to study the L/E behaviour of the electron neutrino appearance probability in order to determine the unknown phase δCP. In the standard neutrino 3-flavour mixing paradigm, this parameter encapsulates a possibility of a CP violation in the lepton sector that in turn could help explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. In LBNO, the measurement of δCP would rely on the observation of the electron appearance probability in a broad energy range covering the 1st and 2nd maxima of the oscillation probability. An optimization of the energy spectrum of the neutrino beam is necessary to find the best coverage of the neutrino energies of interest. This in general is a complex task that requires exploring a large parameter space describing hadron target and beamline focusing elements. In this paper we will present a numerical approach of finding a solution to this difficult optimization problem often encountered in design of modern neutrino beamlines and we will show the improved LBNO sensitivity to the presence of the leptonic CP violation attained after the neutrino beam optimization

    A CVD diamond detector for (n,alpha) cross section measurements

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    Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenceIn astrophysics, the determination of the optical alpha-nucleus potential for low alpha-particle energies, crucial in understanding the origin of the stable isotopes, has turned out to be a challenge. Theory still cannot predict the optical potentials required for the calculation of the astrophysical reaction rates in the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model and there is scant experimental information on reactions with alpha particles at the relevant astrophysical energies. Measurements of (n,alpha) cross-sections offer a good opportunity to study the alpha channel. At the n_TOF experiment at CERN, a prototype detector, based on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond technology, has been recently developed for (n,alpha) measurements. A reference measurement of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction was performed in 2011 at n_TOF as a feasibility study for this detector type. The results of this measurement and an outline for future experiments are presented here

    First Measurement of 72Ge(n,Îł) at n_TOF

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    9th European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear AstrophysicsThe slow neutron capture process (s-process) is responsible for producing about half of the elemental abundances heavier than iron in the universo

    Design of a high power production target for the Beam Dump Facility at CERN

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    The Beam Dump Facility (BDF) project is a proposed general-purpose facility at CERN, dedicated to beam dump and fixed target experiments. In its initial phase, the facility is foreseen to be exploited by the Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) experiment. Physics requirements call for a pulsed 400 GeV/c proton beam as well as the highest possible number of protons on target (POT) each year of operation, in order to search for feebly interacting particles. The target/dump assembly lies at the heart of the facility, with the aim of safely absorbing the full high intensity Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) beam, while maximizing the production of charmed and beauty mesons. High-Z materials are required for the target/dump, in order to have the shortest possible absorber and reduce muon background for the downstream experiment. The high average power deposited on target (305 kW) creates a challenge for heat removal. During the BDF facility Comprehensive Design Study (CDS), launched by CERN in 2016, extensive studies have been carried out in order to define and assess the target assembly design. These studies are described in the present contribution, which details the proposed design of the BDF production target, as well as the material selection process and the optimization of the target configuration and beam dilution. One of the specific challenges and novelty of this work is the need to consider new target materials, such as a molybdenum alloy (TZM) as core absorbing material and Ta2.5W as cladding. Thermo-structural and fluid dynamics calculations have been performed to evaluate the reliability of the target and its cooling system under beam operation. In the framework of the target comprehensive design, a preliminary mechanical design of the full target assembly has also been carried out, assessing the feasibility of the whole target system.Comment: 17 pages, 18 figure

    Neutron cross-sections for advanced nuclear systems : The n-TOF project at CERN

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    © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly citedThe study of neutron-induced reactions is of high relevance in a wide variety of fields, ranging from stellar nucleosynthesis and fundamental nuclear physics to applications of nuclear technology. In nuclear energy, high accuracy neutron data are needed for the development of Generation IV fast reactors and accelerator driven systems, these last aimed specifically at nuclear waste incineration, as well as for research on innovative fuel cycles. In this context, a high luminosity Neutron Time Of Flight facility, n-TOF, is operating at CERN since more than a decade, with the aim of providing new, high accuracy and high resolution neutron cross-sections. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, a rich experimental program relevant to nuclear technology has been carried out so far. The program will be further expanded in the near future, thanks in particular to a new high-flux experimental area, now under construction.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Measurement of the 242Pu(n,f) cross section at n_TOF

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    Knowledge of neutron cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems. The 242Pu(n,f) cross sections were measured at the CERN n-TOF facility, taking advantage of the wide energy range (from thermal to GeV) and the high instantaneous flux of the neutron beam. In this work, preliminary results are presented along with a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014

    Neutron-induced fission cross section of 245 Cm: New results from data taken at the time-of-flight facility n_TOF

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    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm was measured at n-TOF in a wide energy range and with high resolution. The energy dependence, measured in a single measurement from 30 meV to 1 MeV neutron energy, has been determined with 5% accuracy relative to the 235U(n,f) cross section. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the absolute value, the data have been normalized at thermal energy to recent measurements performed at ILL and BR1. In the energy range of overlap, the results are in fair agreement with some previous measurements and confirm, on average, the evaluated cross section in the ENDF/B-VII.0 database, although sizable differences are observed for some important resonances below 20 eV. A similar behavior is observed relative to JENDL/AC-2008, a reactor-oriented database for actinides. The new results contribute to the overall improvement of the databases needed for the design of advanced reactor systems and may lead to refinements of fission models for the actinides.ComisiĂłn Europea FIKW-CT-2000-00107 24967

    A narrow band neutrino beam with high precision flux measurements

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    The ENUBET facility is a proposed narrow band neutrino beam where lepton production is monitored at single particle level in the instrumented decay tunnel. This facility addresses simultaneously the two most important challenges for the next generation of cross section experiments: a superior control of the flux and flavor composition at source and a high level of tunability and precision in the selection of the energy of the outcoming neutrinos. We report here the latest results in the development and test of the instrumentation for the decay tunnel. Special emphasis is given to irradiation tests of the photo-sensors performed at INFN-LNL and CERN in 2017 and to the first application of polysiloxane-based scintillators in high energy physics.Comment: Poster presented at NuPhys2017 (London, 20-22 December 2017). 5 pages, 2 figure
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