4,471 research outputs found

    Z → ττ production at CMS

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    The first measurement of the Z → ττ cross-section reconstructing hadronic and leptonic tau final states is presented. The data collected in 2010 with the CMS detector (CMS Collaboration, JINST 3 (2008) S08004) from p-p collisions at √s = 7TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 36 pb−1, are used. The cross section has been measured to be in good agreement with the next-to-next-to-leading order electroweak prediction. The production of Z bosons decaying into tau pairs serves as an important benchmark for tau reconstruction and constitutes a reference Standard Model process for searches at the LHC, like the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model H → ττ

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson in associated WH production in the eμτ and μμτ final states

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    A search for WH events has been performed by using data collected in 2011 at CMS corresponding to 4.7 fb−1. No signal is found and therefore upper limits are given in the Higgs mass range [100, 140] GeV/c2

    Processing of semantic and grammatical gender in Spanish speakers with aphasia

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    Published online: 30 May 2021.Background: Previous studies have argued that there are two types of linguistic gender: grammatical gender, which is arbitrarily assigned to nouns, and semantic gender, which depends on the gender of the referent. Aim: We explore the hypothesis that these two types of gender entail distinct cognitive processes by investigating the performance of people with aphasia at the level of sentence processing. Methods and Procedure: Nine people with aphasia (seven with fluent aphasia) and a control group of thirteen age-matched healthy participants took part in a constrained completion choice task. The participants had to complete sentences in a way that made the last word gender congruent. The subjects of the sentences had either Semantic gender (enfermera, nurse; indicating the gender of the referent), Grammatical gender (silla, chair), or Opaque-Grammatical gender (tomate, tomato). Results: People with aphasia performed more poorly in all gender conditions than healthy controls. They also were less accurate in both the Grammatical and Opaque-Grammatical conditions than in the Semantic gender condition. Conclusion: We propose that because semantic gender provides more salient information, it is processed faster than grammatical gender.MC was supported by the postdoctoral Ramón y Cajal fellowship (RYC-2013-14013), Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI, National Research Agency), and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER, European Regional Development Fund) under projects PSI2017-87784-R and RED2018- 102615-T

    Limiting Behaviour of the Mean Residual Life

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    In survival or reliability studies, the mean residual life or life expectancy is an important characteristic of the model. Here, we study the limiting behaviour of the mean residual life, and derive an asymptotic expansion which can be used to obtain a good approximation for large values of the time variable. The asymptotic expansion is valid for a quite general class of failure rate distributions--perhaps the largest class that can be expected given that the terms depend only on the failure rate and its derivatives.Comment: 19 page

    CMS endcap RPC gas gap production for upgrade

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    The CMS experiment will install a RE4 layer of 144 new Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) on the existing york YE3 at both endcap regions to trigger high momentum muons from the proton-proton interaction. In this paper, we present the detailed procedures used in the production of new RPC gas gaps adopted in the CMS upgrade. Quality assurance is enforced as ways to maintain the same quality of RPC gas gaps as the existing 432 endcap RPC chambers that have been operational since the beginning of the LHC operation

    A study of gas contaminants and interaction with materials in RPC closed loop systems

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    Resistive Plate Counters (RPC) detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use gas recirculation systems to cope with large gas mixture volumes and costs. In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with unused and used cartridge material along with contaminants release in the gas system. During the data-taking the response of several RPC double-gap detectors was monitored in order to characterize the correlation between dark currents, filter status and gas contaminants

    V’O2 kinetics in response to High-Intensity-Interval Training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) in older, healthy men

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    High intensity exercise training (HIT) accelerates V’O2 kinetics (VO2k) in older subjects. It is controversial whether IRT may elicit the same adaptation. We explored the effect of HIT and IRT on VO2k and muscle deoxygenation during moderate intensity exercise in older, healthy men. 12 men (68 yy ± 4) were exposed to 8 weeks (3 times a week) of: i) HIT, and, after 4 months, ii) IRT performed with an isoinertial YoYo. Before and after training we measured: i) V’O2 peak (V’O2p); ii) breath-by-breath V’O2 and fractional muscle O2 extraction (∆HHb) of vastus lateralis by quantitative NIRS during step-exercise transitions of moderate intensity. VO2k was modeled by means of a double - exponential function to obtain the time constant (Tau) of its primary component. The normalized ∆HHb to ∆V’O2 ratio (∆HHb/∆V’O2) was calculated as and index of the matching between muscular O2 delivery (VO2m) and uptake (QaO2). V’O2p increased after HIT (29.9 mL min-1 kg-1 ± 4.3 - 32.6 mL min-1 kg-1± 6.0, p<0.05); it was not affected by IRT. Tau decreased after HIT (26.97 s ± 5.54 - 19.63 s ± 4.31, p<0.05); it did not change after IRT. Peak ∆HHb/∆V’O2 was smaller after HIT (1.83 ± 0.63 - 1.23 ± 0.37, p<0.05); it was not affected by IRT. 8 weeks of HIT accelerated V’O2k and improved the matching between QaO2 and VO2m. IRT did not lead to any improvement of ∆HHb/∆V’O2 and left V’O2k unchanged. Results suggest that the acceleration of V’O2k was mainly due to the improved matching of VO2m to QaO2

    EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND ISOINERTIAL TRAINING ON MUSCLE FUNCTIONS IN OLDER ADULTS

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    Introduction Maximal muscle strength is a strong predictor of functional skills and ability to maintain independent living in elderly. Muscle contraction properties has been shown to decline to a greater extent than muscle strength with aging and it has been considered the main responsible of the observed decline in functional status (Izquierdo et al., 1999). Endurance high intensity interval training (HIT), by involving large muscle groups, and eccentric strength exercise (IRT), by producing high mechanical loads, could be used in elderly to improve muscle function and quality of life (Milanovi et al., 2015). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the changes in muscle properties in elderly after 8 wk of HIT and IRT. Methods 12 moderately active older adults (age: 69.4±4.3 yy; BMI: 22.9±2.7 kg/m2; V’O2max: 29.5±4.1 mL/kg/min) have completed 8 wk of: i) HIT, 7 two-minute cycling repetitions at 90% of V’O2max, 3 times/wk, and, after 4 months, ii) IRT performed with an isoinertial leg press (YoYo TechnologyAB) comprised 4×7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions, 3 times/wk. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured using a cell load in a custom-made setup (90° knee flexion). Electrically evoked muscle single twitch was superimposed onto MVC: neuromuscular activation (NA) was calculated as the ratio between the amplitudes of the superimposed and resting twitches. Muscle volume of the quadriceps (Qvol) was obtained by MRI scans. Results MVC at 90° knee flexion, increase significantly only after IRT (P < 0.01). Both training modalities affected significantly NA (P < 0.05): +12.4% after HIT and +14.2 after IRT. Similarly, Qvol increase by 5.1% (P < 0.05) after HIT intervention and by 4.9% (P < 0.05) after IRT. Discussion Our results confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of HIT and IRT to improve muscle qualities: 8 wk of specific training are able to modify muscle mass, MVC and neuromuscular activation in elderly subjects. This stresses the importance of using effective approaches such as exercise treatment with high loads and high intensities in the prevention of disuse in elderly individuals who are concurrently exposed to the deleterious effects of aging on muscle contractile function and mass (Behrens et al., 2016). We can therefore speculate that the two proposed training modalities may be helpful in improving functional status and prevent frailty in elderly subjects. References Izquierdo M, Aguado X, Gonzalez R, Lopez JL, Hakkinen K. (1999). Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 79, 260-7. Milanovi Z, Sporiš G, Weston M. (2015). Sports Med, 45(10), 1469-81. Behrens M, Brown N, Bollinger R, Bubeck D, Mau-Moeller A, Weippert M, Zschorlich V, Bruhn S, Alt W. (2016). Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 41(1), 110-3

    SPEEDING OF V’O2 KINETICS IN RESPONSE TO HIGH-INTENSITY-INTERVAL TRAINING IN OLDER, HEALTHY MEN

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    Introduction Experimental evidence suggests that High Intensity Interval Training (HIT, high intensity - low volume exercise) may be effective in accelerating the dynamic response pulmonary O2 uptake (V’O2) in older subjects through an improvement of the matching between local O2 delivery and uptake (Williams et al., 2013). This study explores the effect of HIT on V’O2 kinetics and muscle deoxygenating during step transitions of moderate intensity, cycling exercise in older, healthy men. Methods 12 moderately active older adults (68-yy ± 4) were exposed to 8 weeks of HIT training with 7 two-minute repetitions at 40 and 90% of V ̇O2max, 3 times a week. Before and after training we measured: i) V’O2 peak (V’O2p), gas exchange threshold (GET) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) during an incremental test up to exhaustion; ii) breath-by-breath V’O2 and change of fractional muscle O2 extraction (ΔHHb) of vastus lateralis by quantitative NIRS during three step-exercise transitions performed at a workload corresponding to 90% of GET. V’O2 kinetics was modeled, after synchronization and overlapping of the three series, by means of a double - exponential function so that we estimated the time constant (Tau) of the primary component of VO2 kinetics. Finally, the normalized ΔHHb to ΔV’O2 ratio was obtained as index of the matching between muscular O2 delivery and uptake (De Roia et al., 2012; Murias et al., 2011). Results V’O2max increased by 9% (29.9 mL min-1 kg-1 ±4.3 - 32.6 mL min-1 kg-1± 6.0, p<0.01, ES 0.51) after 8 weeks of HIT. RCP (respiratory compensation point, per cent of V’O2max) significantly improved by 10% (76.4 % ± 8.3 - 82.9 % ± 4.9, p<0.05, ES 0.97); Tau decreased by about 26% (26.97 s ± 5.54 - 19.63 s ± 4.31, p<0.001, ES 1.48), suggesting a substantial acceleration of V’O2 kinetics; peak value of ΔHHb to ΔV’O2 ratio was smaller after HIT (∼ 29%) (1.83 ± 0.63 - 1.23 ± 0.37, p<0.01, ES 1.17). Discussion This study shows that 8 weeks of HIT were sufficient to induce a significant acceleration of V’O2 kinetics during moderate intensity exercise and to improve the matching between muscular O2 delivery and uptake in older, healthy men. These results suggest that the acceleration of the dynamic response of aerobic metabolism was due to an improved matching of O2 utilization to microvascular delivery. References Williams AM, Paterson DH, Kowalchuk JM. (2013) J Appl Physiol 114, 1550–1562. De Roia G, Pogliaghi S, Adami A, Papadopoulou C, Capelli C. (2012) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 302, R1158- R1166. Murias JM, Spencer MD, DeLorey DS, Gurd BJ, Kowalchuk JM, Paterson DH. (2011) J Appl Physiol 111, 1410–1415

    Role of combined DWIBS/3D-CE-T1w whole-body MRI in tumor staging: Comparison with PET-CT

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    Objectives: To assess the diagnostic performance of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) by diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) in malignant tumor detection and the potential diagnostic advantages in generating fused DWIBS/3D-contrast enhanced T1w (3D-CE-T1w) images. Methods: 45 cancer patients underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT and WB-MRI for staging purpose. Fused DWIBS/3D-CE T1w images were generated off-line. 3D-CE-T1w, DWIBS images alone and fused with 3D-CE T1w were compared by two readers groups for detection of primary diseases and local/distant metastases. Diagnostic performance between the three WB-MRI data sets was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Imaging exams and histopathological results were used as standard of references. Results: Areas under the ROC curves of DWIBS vs. 3D-CE-T1w vs. both sequences in fused fashion were 0.97, 0.978, and 1.00, respectively. The diagnostic performance in tumor detection of fused DWIBS/3DCE- T1w images were statistically superior to DWIBS (p < 0.001) and 3D-CE-T1w (p ≤ 0.002); while the difference between DWIBS and 3D-CE-T1w did not show statistical significance difference. Detection rates of malignancy did not differ between WB-MRI with DWIBS and 18F-FDG PET-CT. Conclusion: WB-MRI with DWIBS is to be considered as alternative tool to conventional whole-body methods for tumor staging and during follow-up in cancer patients
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