1,292 research outputs found

    Dan Brown: Morphology of a Bestsellersaurus

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    L'articolo indaga da un punto di vista narratologico l'opera di Dan Brown e la teoria della serial fiction

    Constraining Modified Gravity with Euclid

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    Future proposed satellite missions as Euclid can offer the opportunity to test general relativity on cosmic scales through mapping of the galaxy weak lensing signal. In this paper we forecast the ability of these experiments to constrain modified gravity scenarios as those predicted by scalar-tensor and f(R)f(R) theories. We found that Euclid will improve constraints expected from the PLANCK satellite on these modified gravity models by two orders of magnitude. We discuss parameter degeneracies and the possible biases introduced by modified gravity

    AAA: Fair Evaluation for Abuse Detection Systems Wanted

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    Perfusion index variations in clinically and hemodynamically stable preterm newborns in the first week of life

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The perfusion index, derived from the pulse oximeter signal, seems to be an accurate predictor for high illness severity in newborns. The aim of this study was to determine the perfusion index values of clinically and hemodynamically stable preterm newborns in the first week of life.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Perfusion index recordings were performed on the first, third and seventh day of life on 30 preterm newborns. Their state of health was assessed according to clinical and behaviour evaluation and to the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The median(interquartile range) perfusion index values were 0.9(0.6) on the first, 1.2(1.0) on the third, and 1.3(0.9) on the seventh day, with a significant increase between the first and the third day.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Perfusion index proved to be an easily applicable, non-invasive method for monitoring early postnatal changes in peripheral perfusion. Its trend during the first week of life suggests that its clinical application should take age into account. Further studies are needed to obtain reference perfusion index values from a larger sample of preterm newborns, to identify specific gestational age-related cut-off values for illness and to test the role of perfusion index in monitoring critically ill neonates.</p

    Healthspan Enhancement by Olive Polyphenols in C. elegans Wild Type and Parkinson’s Models

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    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent late-age onset neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1% of the population after the age of about 60 years old and 4% of those over 80 years old, causing motor impairments and cognitive dysfunction. Increasing evidence indicates that Mediterranean diet (MD) exerts beneficial effects in maintaining health, especially during ageing and by the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, olive oil and its biophenolic constituents like hydroxytyrosol (HT) have received growing attention in the past years. Thus, in the current study we test the health-promoting effects of two hydroxytyrosol preparations, pure HT and HidroxÂź (HD), which is hydroxytyrosol in its “natural” environment, in the established invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. HD exposure led to much stronger beneficial locomotion effects in wild type worms compared to HT in the same concentration. Consistent to this finding, in OW13 worms, a PD-model characterized by α-synuclein expression in muscles, HD exhibited a significant higher effect on α-synuclein accumulation and swim performance than HT, an effect partly confirmed also in swim assays with the UA44 strain, which features α-synuclein expression in DA-neurons. Interestingly, beneficial effects of HD and HT treatment with similar strength were detected in the lifespan and autofluorescence of wild-type nematodes, in the neuronal health of UA44 worms as well as in the locomotion of rotenone-induced PD-model. Thus, the hypothesis that HD features higher healthspan-promoting abilities than HT was at least partly confirmed. Our study demonstrates that HD polyphenolic extract treatment has the potential to partly prevent or even treat ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases and ageing itself. Future investigations including mammalian models and human clinical trials are needed to uncover the full potential of these olive compounds.Peer Reviewe

    Healthspan Enhancement by Olive Polyphenols in C. elegans Wild Type and Parkinson’s Models

    Get PDF
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent late-age onset neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1% of the population after the age of about 60 years old and 4% of those over 80 years old, causing motor impairments and cognitive dysfunction. Increasing evidence indicates that Mediterranean diet (MD) exerts beneficial effects in maintaining health, especially during ageing and by the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, olive oil and its biophenolic constituents like hydroxytyrosol (HT) have received growing attention in the past years. Thus, in the current study we test the health-promoting effects of two hydroxytyrosol preparations, pure HT and HidroxÂź (HD), which is hydroxytyrosol in its “natural” environment, in the established invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. HD exposure led to much stronger beneficial locomotion effects in wild type worms compared to HT in the same concentration. Consistent to this finding, in OW13 worms, a PD-model characterized by α-synuclein expression in muscles, HD exhibited a significant higher effect on α-synuclein accumulation and swim performance than HT, an effect partly confirmed also in swim assays with the UA44 strain, which features α-synuclein expression in DA-neurons. Interestingly, beneficial effects of HD and HT treatment with similar strength were detected in the lifespan and autofluorescence of wild-type nematodes, in the neuronal health of UA44 worms as well as in the locomotion of rotenone-induced PD-model. Thus, the hypothesis that HD features higher healthspan-promoting abilities than HT was at least partly confirmed. Our study demonstrates that HD polyphenolic extract treatment has the potential to partly prevent or even treat ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases and ageing itself. Future investigations including mammalian models and human clinical trials are needed to uncover the full potential of these olive compounds

    Endothelial heme oxygenase-1 induction by hypoxia. Modulation by inducible nitric-oxide synthase and S-nitrosothiols.

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    The stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced in endothelial cells exposed to nitric oxide (NO)-releasing agents, and this process is finely modulated by thiols (Foresti, R., Clark, J. E., Green, C. J., and Motterlini R. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 18411–18417). Here, we report that up-regulation of HO-1 in aortic endothelial cells by severe hypoxic conditions (pO2 ≀ 2 mm Hg) is preceded by increased inducible NO synthase and NO synthase activity. This effect is accompanied by oxidation of intracellular glutathione and formation of S-nitrosothiols. Incubation of cells with a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (S-(2-aminoethyl)-isothiourea) or a NO scavenger ([2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide]) significantly attenuated the increase in heme oxygenase activity caused by reduced oxygen availability. A series of antioxidant agents did not prevent the elevation in heme oxygenase activity by hypoxia; however, the precursor of glutathione synthesis and thiol donor,N-acetylcysteine, completely abolished HO-1 induction. We also found that the hypoxia-mediated increase in endothelial heme oxygenase activity was potentiated by the presence ofS-nitrosoglutathione. These results indicate that intracellular interaction of thiols with NO is an important determinant in the mechanism leading to HO-1 induction by reduced oxygen levels. We suggest that in addition to oxidative stress, HO-1 gene expression can be regulated by redox reactions involving NO andS-nitrosothiols (nitrosative stress), emphasizing a versatile role for the heme oxygenase pathway in the cellular adaptation to a variety of stressful conditions

    The new scintillating fiber detector of E835 at Fermilab

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    Abstract The scintillating fiber tracker for the measurement of the polar coordinate ξ for experiment E835 at Fermilab has been upgraded, by adding two extra layers (240 fibers each), at R ≈9 cm from the beam axis. Photons from the fibers are detected by Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPCs). The high granularity, flexibility and fast response of the scintillating fibers, combined with the high quantum efficiency of the VLPCs, allow high rate capability, high efficiency, good tracking and time resolution. Signals from the outer two layers are used to provide ξ information to the first-level trigger
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