49,482 research outputs found

    Tracking Simulations Near Half-Integer Resonance at PEP-II

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    Beam-beam simulations predict that PEP-II luminosity can be increased by operating the horizontal betatron tune near and above a half-integer resonance. However, effects of the resonance and its synchrotron sidebands significantly enhance betatron and chromatic perturbations which tend to reduce dynamic aperture. In the study, chromatic variation of horizontal tune near the resonance was minimized by optimizing local sextupoles in the Interaction Region. Dynamic aperture was calculated using tracking simulations in LEGO code. Dependence of dynamic aperture on the residual orbit, dispersion and distortion of beta function after correction was investigated.Comment: 4 page

    Cosmology with minimal length uncertainty relations

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    We study the effects of the existence of a minimal observable length in the phase space of classical and quantum de Sitter (dS) and Anti de Sitter (AdS) cosmology. Since this length has been suggested in quantum gravity and string theory, its effects in the early universe might be expected. Adopting the existence of such a minimum length results in the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), which is a deformed Heisenberg algebra between minisuperspace variables and their momenta operators. We extend these deformed commutating relations to the corresponding deformed Poisson algebra in the classical limit. Using the resulting Poisson and Heisenberg relations, we then construct the classical and quantum cosmology of dS and Ads models in a canonical framework. We show that in classical dS cosmology this effect yields an inflationary universe in which the rate of expansion is larger than the usual dS universe. Also, for the AdS model it is shown that GUP might change the oscillatory nature of the corresponding cosmology. We also study the effects of GUP in quantized models through approximate analytical solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt (WD) equation, in the limit of small scale factor for the universe, and compare the results with the ordinary quantum cosmology in each case.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, to appear in IJMP

    Cyclic cosmology from Lagrange-multiplier modified gravity

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    We investigate cyclic and singularity-free evolutions in a universe governed by Lagrange-multiplier modified gravity, either in scalar-field cosmology, as well as in f(R)f(R) one. In the scalar case, cyclicity can be induced by a suitably reconstructed simple potential, and the matter content of the universe can be successfully incorporated. In the case of f(R)f(R)-gravity, cyclicity can be induced by a suitable reconstructed second function f2(R)f_2(R) of a very simple form, however the matter evolution cannot be analytically handled. Furthermore, we study the evolution of cosmological perturbations for the two scenarios. For the scalar case the system possesses no wavelike modes due to a dust-like sound speed, while for the f(R)f(R) case there exist an oscillation mode of perturbations which indicates a dynamical degree of freedom. Both scenarios allow for stable parameter spaces of cosmological perturbations through the bouncing point.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, references added, accepted for publicatio

    A Lambda CDM bounce scenario

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    We study a contracting universe composed of cold dark matter and radiation, and with a positive cosmological constant. As is well known from standard cosmological perturbation theory, under the assumption of initial quantum vacuum fluctuations the Fourier modes of the comoving curvature perturbation that exit the (sound) Hubble radius in such a contracting universe at a time of matter-domination will be nearly scale-invariant. Furthermore, the modes that exit the (sound) Hubble radius when the effective equation of state is slightly negative due to the cosmological constant will have a slight red tilt, in agreement with observations. We assume that loop quantum cosmology captures the correct high-curvature dynamics of the space-time, and this ensures that the big-bang singularity is resolved and is replaced by a bounce. We calculate the evolution of the perturbations through the bounce and find that they remain nearly scale-invariant. We also show that the amplitude of the scalar perturbations in this cosmology depends on a combination of the sound speed of cold dark matter, the Hubble rate in the contracting branch at the time of equality of the energy densities of cold dark matter and radiation, and the curvature scale that the loop quantum cosmology bounce occurs at. Finally, for a small sound speed of cold dark matter, this scenario predicts a small tensor-to-scalar ratio

    Dynamical Effects Due to Fringe Field of the Magnet in Circular Accelerators

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    The leading Lie generators, including the chromatic effects, due to hard-edge fringe field of single multipole and solenoid are derived from the vector potentials within a Hamiltonian system. These nonlinear generators are applied to the interaction region of PEP-II to analyze the linear errors due to the feed-down from the off-centered quadrupoles and solenoid. The nonlinear effects of tune shifts at large amplitude, the synchro-betatron sidebands near half integer and their impacts on the dynamic aperture are studied in the paper.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure

    Bounce and cyclic cosmology in extended nonlinear massive gravity

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    We investigate non-singular bounce and cyclic cosmological evolutions in a universe governed by the extended nonlinear massive gravity, in which the graviton mass is promoted to a scalar-field potential. The extra freedom of the theory can lead to certain energy conditions violations and drive cyclicity with two different mechanisms: either with a suitably chosen scalar-field potential under a given Stuckelberg-scalar function, or with a suitably chosen Stuckelberg-scalar function under a given scalar-field potential. Our analysis shows that extended nonlinear massive gravity can alter significantly the evolution of the universe at both early and late times.Comment: 20 pages, 5 figures, version published at JCA

    Testing the Lorentz and CPT Symmetry with CMB polarizations and a non-relativistic Maxwell Theory

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    We present a model for a system involving a photon gauge field and a scalar field at quantum criticality in the frame of a Lifthitz-type non-relativistic Maxwell theory. We will show this model gives rise to Lorentz and CPT violation which leads to a frequency-dependent rotation of polarization plane of radiations, and so leaves potential signals on the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropies.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, accepted on JCAP, a few references adde

    Exact Outage Performance Analysis of Multiuser Multi-relay Spectrum Sharing Cognitive Networks

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    In this paper, we investigate the outage performance of dual-hop multiuser multi-relay cognitive radio networks under spectrum sharing constraints. Using an efficient relay-destination selection scheme, the exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the outage probability are derived. From these expressions it is indicated that the achieved diversity order is only determined by the number of secondary user (SU) relays and destinations, and equals to M+N (where M and N are the number of destination nodes and relay nodes, respectively). Further, we find that the coding gain of the SU network will be affected by the interference threshold barIbar I at the primary user (PU) receiver. Specifically, as the increases of the interference threshold, the coding gain of the considered network approaches to that of the multiuser multi-relay system in the non-cognitive network. Finally, our study is corroborated by representative numerical examples
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