51,564 research outputs found

### Asymptotic equivalence and adaptive estimation for robust nonparametric regression

Asymptotic equivalence theory developed in the literature so far are only for
bounded loss functions. This limits the potential applications of the theory
because many commonly used loss functions in statistical inference are
unbounded. In this paper we develop asymptotic equivalence results for robust
nonparametric regression with unbounded loss functions. The results imply that
all the Gaussian nonparametric regression procedures can be robustified in a
unified way. A key step in our equivalence argument is to bin the data and then
take the median of each bin. The asymptotic equivalence results have
significant practical implications. To illustrate the general principles of the
equivalence argument we consider two important nonparametric inference
problems: robust estimation of the regression function and the estimation of a
quadratic functional. In both cases easily implementable procedures are
constructed and are shown to enjoy simultaneously a high degree of robustness
and adaptivity. Other problems such as construction of confidence sets and
nonparametric hypothesis testing can be handled in a similar fashion.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/08-AOS681 the Annals of
Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical
Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

### Analysis and evaluation of the entropy indices of a static network structure

Although degree distribution entropy (DDE), SD structure entropy (SDSE), Wu structure entropy (WSE) and FB structure entropy (FBSE) are four static network structure entropy indices widely used to quantify the heterogeneity of a complex network, previous studies have paid little attention to their differing abilities to describe network structure. We calculate these four structure entropies for four benchmark networks and compare the results by measuring the ability of each index to characterize network heterogeneity. We find that SDSE and FBSE more accurately characterize network heterogeneity than WSE and DDE. We also find that existing benchmark networks fail to distinguish SDSE and FBSE because they cannot discriminate local and global network heterogeneity. We solve this problem by proposing an evolving caveman network that reveals the differences between structure entropy indices by comparing the sensitivities during the network evolutionary process. Mathematical analysis and computational simulation both indicate that FBSE describes the global topology variation in the evolutionary process of a caveman network, and that the other three structure entropy indices reflect only local network heterogeneity. Our study offers an expansive view of the structural complexity of networks and expands our understanding of complex network behavior.The authors would like to thank the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71501153), Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (2016JQ6072), and the Foundation of China Scholarship Council (201506965039, 201606965057). (71501153 - National Natural Science Foundation of China; 2016JQ6072 - Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China; 201506965039 - Foundation of China Scholarship Council; 201606965057 - Foundation of China Scholarship Council)Published versio

### Optimum Statistical Estimation with Strategic Data Sources

We propose an optimum mechanism for providing monetary incentives to the data
sources of a statistical estimator such as linear regression, so that high
quality data is provided at low cost, in the sense that the sum of payments and
estimation error is minimized. The mechanism applies to a broad range of
estimators, including linear and polynomial regression, kernel regression, and,
under some additional assumptions, ridge regression. It also generalizes to
several objectives, including minimizing estimation error subject to budget
constraints. Besides our concrete results for regression problems, we
contribute a mechanism design framework through which to design and analyze
statistical estimators whose examples are supplied by workers with cost for
labeling said examples

### Cluster Extended Dynamical Mean Field Approach and Unconventional Superconductivity

The extended dynamical mean field theory has played an important role in the
study of quantum phase transitions in heavy fermion systems. In order to
incorporate the physics of unconventional superconductivity, we develop a
cluster version of the extended dynamical mean field theory. In this approach,
we show how magnetic order and superconductivity develop as a result of
inter-site spin exchange interactions, and analyze in some detail the form of
correlation functions. We also discuss the methods that can be used to solve
the dynamical equations associated with this approach. Finally, we consider
different settings in which our approach can be applied, including the periodic
Anderson model for heavy fermion systems.Comment: 15 pages, 2 figures, Replaced with published versio

### Exact Solutions to Sourceless Charged Massive Scalar Field Equation on Kerr-Newman Background

The separated radial part of a sourceless massive complex scalar field
equation on the Kerr-Newman black hole background is shown to be a generalized
spin-weighted spheroidal wave equation of imaginary number order. While the
separated angular part is an ordinary spheroidal wave equation. General exact
solutions in integral forms and in power series expansion as well as several
special solutions with physical interest are given for the radial equation in
the non-extreme case. In the extreme case, power series solution to the radial
equation is briefly studied. Recurrence relations between coefficients in power
series expansion of general solutions and connection between the radial
equation are discussed in both cases.Comment: 22 Pages, in LaTex, no figure, to appear in J. Math. Phy

### Sudden stoppage of rotor in a thermally driven rotary motor made from double-walled carbon nanotubes

In a thermally driven rotary motor made from double-walled carbon nanotubes, the rotor (inner tube) can be actuated to rotate within the stator (outer tube) when the environmental temperature is high enough. A sudden stoppage of the rotor can occur when the inner tube has been actuated to rotate at a stable high speed. To find the mechanisms of such sudden stoppages, eight motor models with the same rotor but different stators are built and simulated in the canonical NVT ensembles. Numerical results demonstrate that the sudden stoppage of the rotor occurs when the difference between radii is near 0.34 nm at a high environmental temperature. A smaller difference between radii does not imply easier activation of the sudden rotor stoppage. During rotation, the positions and electron density distribution of atoms at the ends of the motor show that a sp(1) bonded atom on the rotor is attracted by the sp(1) atom with the biggest deviation of radial position on the stator, after which they become two sp(2) atoms. The strong bond interaction between the two atoms leads to the loss of rotational speed of the rotor within 1 ps. Hence, the sudden stoppage is attributed to two factors: the deviation of radial position of atoms at the stator's ends and the drastic thermal vibration of atoms on the rotor in rotation. For a stable motor, sudden stoppage could be avoided by reducing deviation of the radial position of atoms at the stator's ends. A nanobrake can be, thus, achieved by adjusting a sp(1) atom at the ends of stator to stop the rotation of rotor quickly.The authors are grateful for financial support from the National Natural-Science-Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50908190, 11372100)

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