1,636 research outputs found

    Necroptosis in Cholangiocarcinoma

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    Necroptosis is a type of regulated cell death that is increasingly being recognized as a relevant pathway in different pathological conditions. Necroptosis can occur in response to multiple stimuli, is triggered by the activation of death receptors, and is regulated by receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like, which form a regulatory complex called the necrosome. Accumulating evidence suggests that necroptosis plays a complex role in cancer, which is likely context-dependent and can vary among different types of neoplasms. Necroptosis serves as an alternative mode of programmed cell death overcoming apoptosis and, as a pro-inflammatory death type, it may inhibit tumor progression by releasing damage-associated molecular patterns to elicit robust cross-priming of anti-tumor CD8+ T cells. The development of therapeutic strategies triggering necroptosis shows great potential for anti-cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on necroptosis and its role in liver biliary neoplasms, underlying the potential of targeting necroptosis components for cancer treatment

    Leukemia inhibitory factor protects cholangiocarcinoma cells from drug-induced apoptosis via a PI3K/AKT-dependent Mcl-1 activation

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    Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive, strongly chemoresistant liver malignancy. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), an IL-6 family cytokine, promotes progression of various carcinomas. To investigate the role of LIF in cholangiocarcinoma, we evaluated the expression of LIF and its receptor (LIFR) in human samples. LIF secretion and LIFR expression were assessed in established and primary human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In cholangiocarcinoma cells, we tested LIF effects on proliferation, invasion, stem cell-like phenotype, chemotherapy-induced apoptosis (gemcitabine+cisplatin), expression levels of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Mcl-1) proteins, with/without PI3K inhibition, and of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, pAKT. LIF effect on chemotherapy-induced apoptosis was evaluated after LIFR silencing and Mcl-1 inactivation. Results show that LIF and LIFR expression were higher in neoplastic than in control cholangiocytes; LIF was also expressed by tumor stromal cells. LIF had no effects on cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, invasion, and stemness signatures, whilst it counteracted drug-induced apoptosis. Upon LIF stimulation, decreased apoptosis was associated with Mcl-1 and pAKT up-regulation and abolished by PI3K inhibition. LIFR silencing and Mcl-1 blockade restored drug-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, autocrine and paracrine LIF signaling promote chemoresistance in cholangiocarcinoma by up-regulating Mcl-1 via a novel STAT3- and MAPK-independent, PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway. Targeting LIF signaling may increase CCA responsiveness to chemotherapy

    A TGFő≤-ECM-Integrin signalling axis drives structural reconfiguration of the bile duct to promote polycystic liver disease

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    : The formation of multiple cysts in the liver occurs in a number of isolated monogenic diseases or multisystemic syndromes, during which bile ducts develop into fluid-filled biliary cysts. For patients with polycystic liver disease (PCLD), nonsurgical treatments are limited, and managing life-long abdominal swelling, pain, and increasing risk of cyst rupture and infection is common. We demonstrate here that loss of the primary cilium on postnatal biliary epithelial cells (via the deletion of the cilia gene Wdr35) drives ongoing pathological remodeling of the biliary tree, resulting in progressive cyst formation and growth. The development of cystic tissue requires the activation of transforming growth factor-ő≤ (TGFő≤) signaling, which promotes the expression of a procystic, fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix and which itself is perceived by a changing profile of integrin receptors on the cystic epithelium. This signaling axis is conserved in liver cysts from patients with either autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease or autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease, indicating that there are common cellular mechanisms for liver cyst growth regardless of the underlying genetic cause. Cyst number and size can be reduced by inhibiting TGFő≤ signaling or integrin signaling in vivo. We suggest that our findings represent a therapeutic route for patients with polycystic liver disease, most of whom would not be amenable to surgery

    Targeting NAE1-mediated protein hyper-NEDDylation halts cholangiocarcinogenesis and impacts on tumor-stroma crosstalk in experimental models.

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    [EN] BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) comprises a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors associated with dismal prognosis. Alterations in post-translational modifications (PTMs), including NEDDylation, result in abnormal protein dynamics, cell disturbances and disease. Herein, we investigate the role of NEDDylation in CCA development and progression. METHODS: Levels and functions of NEDDylation, together with response to pevonedistat (NEDDylation inhibitor) or CRISPR/Cas9 against NAE1 were evaluated invitro, invivo and/or in patients with CCA. The development of preneoplastic lesions in Nae1+/- mice was investigated using an oncogene-driven CCA model. The impact of NEDDylation in CCA cells on tumor-stroma crosstalk was assessed using CCA-derived cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Proteomic analyses were carried out by mass-spectrometry. RESULTS: The NEDDylation machinery was found overexpressed and overactivated in human CCA cells and tumors. Most NEDDylated proteins found upregulated in CCA cells, after NEDD8-immunoprecipitation and further proteomics, participate in the cell cycle, proliferation or survival. Genetic (CRISPR/Cas9-NAE1) and pharmacological (pevonedistat) inhibition of NEDDylation reduced CCA cell proliferation and impeded colony formation invitro. NEDDylation depletion (pevonedistat or Nae1+/- mice) halted tumorigenesis in subcutaneous, orthotopic, and oncogene-driven models of CCA invivo. Moreover, pevonedistat potentiated chemotherapy-induced cell death in CCA cells invitro. Mechanistically, impaired NEDDylation triggered the accumulation of both cullin RING ligase and NEDD8 substrates, inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, impaired NEDDylation in CCA cells reduced the secretion of proteins involved in fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and oncogenic pathways, ultimately hampering CAF proliferation and migration. CONCLUSION: Aberrant protein NEDDylation contributes to cholangiocarcinogenesis by promoting cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, NEDDylation impacts the CCA-stroma crosstalk. Inhibition of NEDDylation with pevonedistat may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with CCA. LAY SUMMARY: Little is known about the role of post-translational modifications of proteins in cholangiocarcinoma development and progression. Herein, we show that protein NEDDylation is upregulated and hyperactivated in cholangiocarcinoma, promoting tumor growth. Pharmacological inhibition of NEDDylation halts cholangiocarcinogenesis and could be an effective therapeutic strategy to tackle these tumors.This article is based upon work from the COST Action CA18122 European Cholangiocarcinoma Network supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology: www.cost.eu)

    Criteria for preclinical models of cholangiocarcinoma:scientific and medical relevance

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    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare malignancy that develops at any point along the biliary tree. CCA has a poor prognosis, its clinical management remains challenging, and effective treatments are lacking. Therefore, preclinical research is of pivotal importance and necessary to acquire a deeper understanding of CCA and improve therapeutic outcomes. Preclinical research involves developing and managing complementary experimental models, from in vitro assays using primary cells or cell lines cultured in 2D or 3D to in vivo models with engrafted material, chemically induced CCA or genetically engineered models. All are valuable tools with well-defined advantages and limitations. The choice of a preclinical model is guided by the question(s) to be addressed; ideally, results should be recapitulated in independent approaches. In this Consensus Statement, a task force of 45 experts in CCA molecular and cellular biology and clinicians, including pathologists, from ten countries provides recommendations on the minimal criteria for preclinical models to provide a uniform approach. These recommendations are based on two rounds of questionnaires completed by 35 (first round) and 45 (second round) experts to reach a consensus with 13 statements. An agreement was defined when at least 90% of the participants voting anonymously agreed with a statement. The ultimate goal was to transfer basic laboratory research to the clinics through increased disease understanding and to develop clinical biomarkers and innovative therapies for patients with CCA

    Evidence of Distinct Tumour-Propagating Cell Populations with Different Properties in Primary Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Increasing evidence that a number of malignancies are characterised by tumour cell heterogeneity has recently been published, but there is still a lack of data concerning liver cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise tumour-propagating cell (TPC) compartments within human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).After long-term culture, we identified three morphologically different tumour cell populations in a single HCC specimen, and extensively characterised them by means of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, karyotyping and microarray analyses, single cell cloning, and xenotransplantation in NOD/SCID/IL2Rő≥/‚ĀĽ mice.The primary cell populations (hcc-1, -2 and -3) and two clones generated by means of limiting dilutions from hcc-1 (clone-1/7 and -1/8) differently expressed a number of tumour-associated stem cell markers, including EpCAM, CD49f, CD44, CD133, CD56, Thy-1, ALDH and CK19, and also showed different doubling times, drug resistance and tumorigenic potential. Moreover, we found that ALDH expression, in combination with CD44 or Thy-1 negativity or CD56 positivity identified subpopulations with a higher clonogenic potential within hcc-1, hcc-2 and hcc-3 primary cell populations, respectively. Karyotyping revealed the clonal evolution of the cell populations and clones within the primary tumour. Importantly, the primary tumour cell population with the greatest tumorigenic potential and drug resistance showed more chromosomal alterations than the others and contained clones with epithelial and mesenchymal features.Individual HCCs can harbor different self-renewing tumorigenic cell types expressing a variety of morphological and phenotypical markers, karyotypic evolution and different gene expression profiles. This suggests that the models of hepatic carcinogenesis should take into account TPC heterogeneity due to intratumour clonal evolution

    Report from Working Group 3: Beyond the standard model physics at the HL-LHC and HE-LHC

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    This is the third out of five chapters of the final report [1] of the Workshop on Physics at HL-LHC, and perspectives on HE-LHC [2]. It is devoted to the study of the potential, in the search for Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics, of the High Luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC, defined as 33 ab‚ąí1^{-1} of data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV, and of a possible future upgrade, the High Energy (HE) LHC, defined as 1515 ab‚ąí1^{-1} of data at a centre-of-mass energy of 27 TeV. We consider a large variety of new physics models, both in a simplified model fashion and in a more model-dependent one. A long list of contributions from the theory and experimental (ATLAS, CMS, LHCb) communities have been collected and merged together to give a complete, wide, and consistent view of future prospects for BSM physics at the considered colliders. On top of the usual standard candles, such as supersymmetric simplified models and resonances, considered for the evaluation of future collider potentials, this report contains results on dark matter and dark sectors, long lived particles, leptoquarks, sterile neutrinos, axion-like particles, heavy scalars, vector-like quarks, and more. Particular attention is placed, especially in the study of the HL-LHC prospects, to the detector upgrades, the assessment of the future systematic uncertainties, and new experimental techniques. The general conclusion is that the HL-LHC, on top of allowing to extend the present LHC mass and coupling reach by 20‚ąí50%20-50\% on most new physics scenarios, will also be able to constrain, and potentially discover, new physics that is presently unconstrained. Moreover, compared to the HL-LHC, the reach in most observables will, generally more than double at the HE-LHC, which may represent a good candidate future facility for a final test of TeV-scale new physics

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to two Higgs bosons in final states containing four b quarks