171 research outputs found

    Influence of climate change on the frequency of daytime temperature inversions and stagnation events in the Po Valley: historical trend and future projections

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    This work analyzes the frequency of days characterized by daytime temperature inversion and air stagnation events in the Po valley area. The analysis is focused on both historical series and future projections under climate change. Historical sounding data from two different Italian stations are used as well as future projections data, provided by CMCC-CCLM 4-8-19 regional climate model (MED-CORDEX initiative). A new method to detect layers of temperature inversion is also presented. The developed method computes the occurrence of a temperature inversion layer for a given day at 12 UTC without a detailed knowledge of temperature vertical profile. This method was validated using sounding data and applied to the model projections, under two different emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Under RCP4.5 intermediate emissions scenario, the occurrence of temperature inversions is projected to increase by 12¬†days/year (around¬†+¬†10%) in the last decade of 21st century compared to 1986‚Äď2005 average. However, the increase in temperature inversions seems to be especially concentrated in the warm period. Under RCP8.5 extreme scenario, temperature inversions are still projected to increase, though to a lesser extent compared to RCP4.5 scenario (+¬†6¬†days/year in the last decade of 21st century). A similar trend was found also for air stagnation events, which take into account the variation of precipitation pattern and wind strength. The expected increases are equal to +¬†13¬†days/year and +¬†11¬†days/year in the last decade of 21st century compared to 1986‚Äď2005 average, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios respectively

    Development of the ChatGPT, Generative Artificial Intelligence and Natural Large Language Models for Accountable Reporting and Use (CANGARU) Guidelines

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    The swift progress and ubiquitous adoption of Generative AI (GAI), Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPTs), and large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT, have spurred queries about their ethical application, use, and disclosure in scholarly research and scientific productions. A few publishers and journals have recently created their own sets of rules; however, the absence of a unified approach may lead to a 'Babel Tower Effect,' potentially resulting in confusion rather than desired standardization. In response to this, we present the ChatGPT, Generative Artificial Intelligence, and Natural Large Language Models for Accountable Reporting and Use Guidelines (CANGARU) initiative, with the aim of fostering a cross-disciplinary global inclusive consensus on the ethical use, disclosure, and proper reporting of GAI/GPT/LLM technologies in academia. The present protocol consists of four distinct parts: a) an ongoing systematic review of GAI/GPT/LLM applications to understand the linked ideas, findings, and reporting standards in scholarly research, and to formulate guidelines for its use and disclosure, b) a bibliometric analysis of existing author guidelines in journals that mention GAI/GPT/LLM, with the goal of evaluating existing guidelines, analyzing the disparity in their recommendations, and identifying common rules that can be brought into the Delphi consensus process, c) a Delphi survey to establish agreement on the items for the guidelines, ensuring principled GAI/GPT/LLM use, disclosure, and reporting in academia, and d) the subsequent development and dissemination of the finalized guidelines and their supplementary explanation and elaboration documents.Comment: 20 pages, 1 figure, protoco

    A Transportable Reflectarray Antenna for Satellite Ku-band Emergency Communications

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    The design of a Ku-band reconfigurable reflectarray antenna for emergency satellite communications is presented. Bidirectional high data rate satellite links are needed in emergency conditions where other telecommunication infrastructures are not available. In order to operate in this type of scenario, an antenna should be deployable, transportable, and easily repointable. The need of an automatic and fast satellite location and pointing system leads to a completely electronic reconfigurable antenna. The operative bandwidth is from 10.7 to 12.5 GHz for reception and from 14 up to 14.5 GHz for transmission (30% of relative bandwidth). The selected antenna architecture is based on a dual reflectarray system comprising a passive subreflectarray and an active main reflectarray made of reconfigurable 1-bit elementary cells based on PIN diodes

    Bibliometric Analysis of Publisher and Journal Instructions to Authors on Generative-AI in Academic and Scientific Publishing

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    We aim to determine the extent and content of guidance for authors regarding the use of generative-AI (GAI), Generative Pretrained models (GPTs) and Large Language Models (LLMs) powered tools among the top 100 academic publishers and journals in science. The websites of these publishers and journals were screened from between 19th and 20th May 2023. Among the largest 100 publishers, 17% provided guidance on the use of GAI, of which 12 (70.6%) were among the top 25 publishers. Among the top 100 journals, 70% have provided guidance on GAI. Of those with guidance, 94.1% of publishers and 95.7% of journals prohibited the inclusion of GAI as an author. Four journals (5.7%) explicitly prohibit the use of GAI in the generation of a manuscript, while 3 (17.6%) publishers and 15 (21.4%) journals indicated their guidance exclusively applies to the writing process. When disclosing the use of GAI, 42.8% of publishers and 44.3% of journals included specific disclosure criteria. There was variability in guidance of where to disclose the use of GAI, including in the methods, acknowledgments, cover letter, or a new section. There was also variability in how to access GAI guidance and the linking of journal and publisher instructions to authors. There is a lack of guidance by some top publishers and journals on the use of GAI by authors. Among those publishers and journals that provide guidance, there is substantial heterogeneity in the allowable uses of GAI and in how it should be disclosed, with this heterogeneity persisting among affiliated publishers and journals in some instances. The lack of standardization burdens authors and threatens to limit the effectiveness of these regulations. There is a need for standardized guidelines in order to protect the integrity of scientific output as GAI continues to grow in popularity.Comment: Pages 16, 1 figure, 2 table

    Surgeon volume and body mass index influence positive surgical margin risk after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Results in 732 cases

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    Objectives: To evaluate clinicopathological and perioperative factors associated with the risk of focal and non-focal positive surgical margins (PSMs) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).Patients and methods: The study was retrospective and excluded patients who were under androgen-deprivation therapy or had prior treatments. The population included: negative SM cases (control group), focal and non-focal PSM cases (study groups). PSMs were classified as focal when the linear extent of cancer invasion was <= 1 mm and non-focal when >1 mm. The independent association of factors with the risk of focal and non-focal PSMs was assessed by multinomial logistic regression.Results: In all, 732 patients underwent RARP, from January 2013 to December 2017. An extended pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 342 cases (46.7%). In all, 192 cases (26.3%) had PSMs, which were focal in 133 (18.2%) and non-focal in 59 (8.1%). Independent factors associated with the risk of focal PSMs were body mass index (odds ratio [OR] 0.914; P = 0.006), percentage of biopsy positive cores (BPC; OR 1.011; P = 0.015), pathological extracapsular extension (pathological tumour stage [pT]3a; OR 2.064; P = 0.016), and seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b; OR 2.150; P = 0.010). High surgeon volume was a protective factor in having focal PSM (OR 0.574; P = 0.006). Independent predictors of non-focal PSMs were BPC (OR 1,013; P = 0,044), pT3a (OR 4,832; P < 0.001), and pT3b (OR 5,153; P = 0.001).Conclusions: In high-volume centres features related to host, tumour and surgeon volume are factors that predict the risk of focal and non-focal PSMs after RARP

    The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

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    Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS 65 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA; moreover, it might express prognostic potential for clustering the patient population in risk classes. Confirmatory studies are required


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    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To determinate bene\ufb01ts of the association of local anaesthetic wounds in\ufb01ltration and US-TAPblock with ropivacaine on postoperative pain, early recovery and hospital stay in patients undergoing robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). METHODS: The study is double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Our hypothesis was that the association of wound in\ufb01ltration and US-TAP block with Ropivacaine would decrease immediate postoperative pain and opioids use. Primary outcomes included postoperative pain and opioids demand during the hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were nausea/vomiting rate, stool passing time, use of pro-kinetics, length of hospital stay and 30-days readmission to the hospital for pain or other US-TAP-block related complications RESULTS: A total of 100 patients who underwent RARP were eligible for the analysis; 57 received the US-TAP block with 20 ml of 0.35% Ropivacaine (US-TAP-block group) and 43 did not receive USTAP block (no-US-TAP group). All the patients received the local wound anaesthetic in\ufb01ltration with 20 ml of 0.35% Ropivacaine. USTAP block group showed a decreased mean NRS (2.7vs1.8; p[0.04) and reduced use of opioid (8 vs 2; p[0.01) in the \ufb01rst 24 h. Moreover, we found a shorter mean LOS (4.7 vs 4.2; p[ 0.04) with a reduced use of pro-kinetics during the hospital stay (31 vs 12; p<0.001). No US-TAP-block related complications to were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Association of anaesthetic wound in\ufb01ltration and US-TAP block with Ropivacaine as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen can be safely offered to patients undergoing RARP and ePLND. It improves the immediate post-operative pain control, reducing opioids administration and is associated to a decreased use of pro-kinetics and shorter hospital stay

    Quantitation of regional ejection fractions using gated tomographic imaging with Tc-99m-sestamibi

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    BACKGROUND: A new oro-dispersible film (ODF) formulation of sildenafil has been developed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) to overcome the drawbacks that some patients experience when taking the conventional film-coated tablet (FCT). AIM: To assess the effectiveness and safety of sildenafil ODF formulation in patients with ED who were using the conventional FCT. METHODS: From May 2017 through July 2017, 139 patients with ED were enrolled. Data from penile color-duplex ultrasound, medical history, hormonal evaluation, and patient self-administered questionnaires were collected. All patients were administered sildenafil 100-mg FCT for 4 weeks. Thereafter, they underwent a 2-week washout period and subsequently took sildenafil 75-mg ODF for 4 weeks. OUTCOMES: The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Patient Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I), and Clinician Global Impressions of Improvement (CGI-I) questionnaires were administered and severity of ED was classified as severe (IIEF-15 score ‚ȧ 10), moderate (IIEF-15 score 11-16), or mild (IIEF-15 score = 17-25). RESULTS: All patients completed the final protocol. Differences in mean IIEF scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction were significantly in favor of sildenafil 100-mg FCT, whereas the mean score for overall satisfaction was in favor of sildenafil 75-mg ODF. A significant difference in changes in HADS score was found from washout to final follow-up (mean difference = -0.19; P < .01). For the ODF formulation, the median CGI-I score was 3.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 2.5-4.5) and the median PGI-I score was 3.0 (IQR = 2.0-4.0). The median action time was 20.0 minutes (IQR = 15.0-30.0) and the median mouth time was 60.0 seconds (IQR = 30.0-120.0). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The ODF formulation of a widely known drug, with the same safety and effectiveness of the FCT, was better appreciated by patients in overall satisfaction. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is the first clinical trial to assess the efficacy of a new formulation of sildenafil in patients with ED. The limitations of the study are related to the methodology used: it was not a case-control study and the patients were not drug-na√Įve for ED treatment. Therefore, only the "additional" side effects of the ODF formulation compared with FCT are reported. CONCLUSION: The new ODF formulation is as efficient and safe as the FCT formulation and offers a new choice of treatment to specialists for more precisely tailored therapy. Cocci A, Capece M, Cito G, et al. Effectiveness and Safety of Oro-Dispersible Sildenafil in a New Film Formulation for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: Comparison Between Sildenafil 100-mg Film-Coated Tablet and 75-mg Oro-Dispersible Film. J Sex Med 2017;X:XXX-XXX
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