36 research outputs found

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear un derstanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5‚Äď7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8‚Äď11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world‚Äôs most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepre sented in biodiversity databases.13‚Äď15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may elim inate pieces of the Amazon‚Äôs biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological com munities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple or ganism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region‚Äôs vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most ne glected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lostinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Groundwater management in the state of Piauí (Brazil) on the climate change context

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    This article aims to evaluate the current state of groundwater management in the state of Piau√≠, considering the scenario of climate change and its adverse effects on aquifers. The analysis is based on the socioeconomic reality of the state, the availability and demand of groundwater resources, and the level of management and the possible impacts of climate change on the state. What is noticeable is that for the projected scenarios of climate change in the state, groundwater becomes a strategic source in mitigating the effects of climate change; however, the diagnosis produced shows that the state has already been using this resource too much, but without an efficient control of the public power. This combination tends toward a pessimistic view of both the state and groundwater in relation to climate change.O presente artigo tem o objetivo de avaliar o estado atual da gest√£o das √°guas subterr√Ęneas no estado do Piau√≠ considerando o cen√°rio das mudan√ßas clim√°ticas e seus efeitos adversos sobre os aqu√≠feros. A an√°lise √© feita a partir da realidade socioecon√īmica do estado, da disponibilidade e demanda dos recursos h√≠dricos subterr√Ęneos e do n√≠vel de gest√£o e os poss√≠veis impactos das mudan√ßas clim√°ticas para o estado. O que se nota √© que para os cen√°rios projetados das mudan√ßas clim√°ticas no estado, as √°guas subterr√Ęneas tornam-se uma fonte estrat√©gica na ameniza√ß√£o dos efeitos das mudan√ßas clim√°ticas, entretanto, o diagn√≥stico produzido mostra que o estado j√° vem utilizando esse recurso em demasia, mas sem um controle eficiente do poder p√ļblico. Essa combina√ß√£o tende para uma vis√£o pessimista tanto para o estado quanto para as √°guas subterr√Ęneas em rela√ß√£o √†s mudan√ßas clim√°ticas

    Decision Support System for the Integrated Management of Multiple Supply Systems in the Brazilian Semiarid Region

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    To alleviate the impacts of water shortages and ensure the effective allocation of water resources, the integration of multiple sources has been a viable but challenging alternative for water resource managers. A robust decision support system (DSS) reduces the complexity of decision making and allows the user to define operational strategies that reduce costs and address system limitations. Through the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) collective intelligence algorithm and the operational zoning of reservoirs, it was possible to identify the monthly flow allocation for the Agreste of Pernambuco in Brazil. The analysis of unit costs allowed us to conclude that high local energy tariffs guide the DSS in the exploration of water-transfer works between basins, such as the Agreste pipeline, which had full use of approximately 2 m3/s in the analyzed scenarios. The study also sought to investigate the influence of rainy and dry periods, with the higher flows into local reservoirs in rainy periods leading the system to operate at a cost 2.6% higher compared to the dry period. The use of DSS was able to provide support and parameters that facilitate decision making, ensuring that the system operates efficiently and sustainably

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Avaliação e potencial de redução de perdas de água em cidades do Estado de Pernambuco com escassez hídrica e abastecimento intermitente

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    Several cities in the Northeast of Brazil have prolonged periods of drought and water scarcity. Thus, these cities adopt intermittent water supply as an alternative to save water during periods of drought. Despite this situation, the rate of water loss exceeds 50%. Therefore, more than half of all treated water supplied to these cities was lost. This study analyzed the water distribution system of the cities of Caruaru and Salgueiro (Pernambuco), proposing alternatives to mitigate the effects of water scarcity and intermittent supply with the reduction of water losses. The research methodology consisted of data collection, database statistics analysis, calculating of performance indicators, and results comparisons. From 2012 to 2016, water losses were 72.25 million m¬≥ in these cities, which represents approximately 50% of the water produced by the sanitation company. The water loss index in Caruaru was over 50% for several months and, it exceeded 25% over the entire period in Salgueiro. The results have demonstrated the potential for the implementation of loss control programs; besides, intermittency supply has detrimental impacts on the physical integrity of water mains, culminating in an ineffective rationing measure.Diversas cidades no Agreste e Sert√£o do Estado de Pernambuco apresentam per√≠odos prolongados de seca e escassez h√≠drica. Assim, essas cidades adotaram um regime de fornecimento intermitente de √°gua, como alternativa para economiz√°-la durante os per√≠odos de seca. Apesar dessa situa√ß√£o, o √≠ndice de perdas de √°gua na distribui√ß√£o supera os 50%, ou seja, perde-se mais da metade de toda a √°gua tratada que √© fornecida para o abastecimento destas cidades. O estudo analisou o sistema de distribui√ß√£o de √°gua das cidades de Caruaru e Salgueiro (Estado de Pernambuco), propondo alternativas para mitigar os efeitos da escassez h√≠drica e da intermit√™ncia do abastecimento por meio do combate √†s perdas de √°gua. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento de dados, pesquisa documental, c√°lculo de indicadores de desempenho e an√°lise dos resultados. No per√≠odo de 2012 a 2016, o volume de √°gua perdido totalizou 72,25 milh√Ķes de m¬≥ nessas cidades, representando quase 50% da produ√ß√£o de √°gua da concession√°ria. O √≠ndice de perdas, em Caruaru, foi superior a 50% durante v√°rios meses e, em Salgueiro, superou 25% em todo o per√≠odo avaliado. Os resultados demonstraram um potencial para implanta√ß√£o de programas de combate √†s perdas e que a intermit√™ncia possui um efeito prejudicial sobre a integridade f√≠sica da rede, culminando em uma medida n√£o efetiva para o racionamento

    Análise de anti-inflamatórios em uma estação de tratamento de esgoto e água superficial em clima semiárido

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    This work aimed to analyze the presence of four common molecules (diclofenac, dipyrone, ibuprofen, and paracetamol) in the Ipojuca River, in the stretch of Caruaru municipality (Brazil), and in a wastewater treatment plant that discharges treated water to the river. Collections were conducted for three months at each point during April, May, and June. The samples were collected in three repetitions (sample, replica, and triplicate). Through Pearson‚Äôs correlation, the correlation between ibuprofen and diclofenac concentration and rainfall in the region was also verified. These drugs were detected in 100% of the samples, with concentrations between 7.4‚Äď548.2 and 81.8‚Äď231.8 őľg.L-1, respectively. Paracetamol and dipyrone were not detected. The observed high concentrations are due to the high consumption of drugs and the low rate of sewage collection in the municipality. Both analyzed drugs ‚ÄĒ ibuprofen and diclofenac ‚ÄĒ had insignificant correlation results with rainfall (-0.022 and -0.071, respectively). Regarding the drugs in the WWTP, the treatment consisting of anaerobic followed by aerated lagoons showed efficiency ranging from 35.9 to 93.6% in the removal of diclofenac. The removal of ibuprofen was higher in April (86.6%), but in the other two months, it did not prove to be efficient, evidencing the need to implement more adapted technologies in the removal of drugs combined with the network expansion for sewage collection in the region. A study with longer time monitoring is needed to understand the rainfall effect on drug concentration in the river.Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a presen√ßa de quatro mol√©culas comuns (diclofenaco ‚ÄĒ DC, dipirona ‚ÄĒ DP, ibuprofeno ‚ÄĒ IBU e paracetamol ‚ÄĒ PAR) no rio Ipojuca, no trecho do munic√≠pio de Caruaru (Brasil), e em uma esta√ß√£o de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) que despeja √°gua tratada no rio. Foram realizadas coletas mensais, por tr√™s meses, para cada ponto durante os meses de abril, maio e junho. As amostras foram coletadas em tr√™s repeti√ß√Ķes (amostra, r√©plica e triplicata). Por meio da correla√ß√£o de Pearson, verificou-se tamb√©m a correla√ß√£o entre a concentra√ß√£o dos f√°rmacos e a pluviometria da regi√£o. DC e IBU foram detectados em 100% das amostras, com concentra√ß√Ķes de 7,4‚Äď548,2 e 81,8‚Äď231,8 őľg.L-1, respectivamente. PAR e DP n√£o foram detectados. As altas concentra√ß√Ķes observadas devem-se ao alto consumo de f√°rmacos e ao baixo √≠ndice de coleta de esgoto no munic√≠pio. Ambos os medicamentos analisados (IBU e DC) tiveram resultados de correla√ß√£o insignificantes com a precipita√ß√£o (-0,022 e -0,071, respectivamente). Com rela√ß√£o aos medicamentos na ETE, o tratamento em quest√£o, constitu√≠do por lagoas anaer√≥bicas seguidas de aeradas, apresentou efici√™ncia variando de 35,9 a 93,6% na remo√ß√£o de DC. A remo√ß√£o do IBU foi alta no m√™s de abril (86,6%), mas nos outros dois meses n√£o se mostrou eficiente, demonstrando a necessidade de implanta√ß√£o de tecnologias mais adaptadas na retirada de drogas, aliada √† amplia√ß√£o da rede de coleta de esgoto na regi√£o. Um estudo com maior tempo de monitoramento √© recomendado para compreender o efeito das chuvas na concentra√ß√£o dos f√°rmacos no rio

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear understanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5,6,7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8,9,10,11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world's most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepresented in biodiversity databases.13,14,15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may eliminate pieces of the Amazon's biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological communities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple organism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region's vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most neglected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lost

    Analysis of Environmental and Atmospheric Influences in the Use of SAR and Optical Imagery from Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and Sentinel-2 in the Operational Monitoring of Reservoir Water Level

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    In this work, we aim to evaluate the feasibility and operational limitations of using Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to monitor water levels in the Po√ßo da Cruz reservoir from September 2016‚ÄďSeptember 2020, in the semi-arid region of northeast Brazil. To segment water/non-water features, SAR backscattering thresholding was carried out via the graphical interpretation of backscatter coefficient histograms. In addition, surrounding environmental effects on SAR polarization thresholds were investigated by applying wavelet analysis, and the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 normalized difference water index (NDWI) and modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) were used to compare and discuss the SAR results. The assessment of the observed and estimated water levels showed that (i) SAR accuracy was equivalent to that of NDWI/Landsat-8; (ii) optical image accuracy outperformed SAR image accuracy in inlet branches, where the complexity of water features is higher; and (iii) VV polarization outperformed VH polarization. The results confirm that SAR images can be suitable for operational reservoir monitoring, offering a similar accuracy to that of multispectral indices. SAR threshold variations were strongly correlated to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the soil moisture variations in the reservoir depletion zone, and the prior precipitation quantities, which can be used as a proxy to predict cross-polarization (VH) and co-polarization (VV) thresholds. Our findings may improve the accuracy of the algorithms designed to automate the extraction of water levels using SAR data, either in isolation or combined with multispectral images

    METODOLOGIA PARA AVALIA√á√ÉO DE SUSTENTABILIDADE HIDROAMBIENTAL PARA PROJETOS DE INTERVEN√á√ēES EM RIOS PERENES (MASRIOS): APLICA√á√ÉO E CONSIDERA√á√ēES A PARTIR DE ESTUDOS DE CASO: Methodology for hydro-environmental sustainability assesment for intervention projects in perennial rivers (MASRios): application and considerations from case studies

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    To assess the environmental feasibility of structural interventions in fluvial environments, the choice to use specific methodologies based on sustainability indicators can be useful tools for the technical basis of the analysis of environmental licensing. Thus, this research aims to evaluate the Methodology for Assessment of Hydro-environmental Sustainability for Interventions in Perennial Rivers (MASRios), based on its application for the analysis of dam, dredging, rectification and requalification projects in first and second orders perennial rivers, according hierarchical river classification. Based on bibliographic, documentary and field research, case studies, data and information from three projects of intervention in perennial water courses, which were objects of environmental licensing at the State Environmental Agency of Pernambuco between the years 2011 and 2017. Finally, it is verified through the results of the numerical and graphical values presented, that MASRios has the capacity to integrate the hydro-environmental impacts under study, as well as technical agreement to support the sustainability assessment of these types of projects. Keywords: Environmental management instrument. Hydro-environmental sustainability indicators. River system. Environmental licensing. Environmental feasibility.Para evaluar la viabilidad ambiental de intervenciones estructurales en ambientes fluviales, la elecci√≥n de utilizar metodolog√≠as espec√≠ficas basadas en indicadores de sostenibilidad pueden ser herramientas √ļtiles para la base t√©cnica del an√°lisis de licencias ambientales. As√≠, esta investigaci√≥n tiene como objetivo evaluar la Metodolog√≠a de Evaluaci√≥n de la Sostenibilidad Hidroambiental para Intervenciones en R√≠os Perennes (MASRios), resultado de una investigaci√≥n doctoral de Carvalho (2018), basada en su aplicaci√≥n para el an√°lisis de proyectos de presas, dragados, rectificaciones y recalificaciones en r√≠os perennes de 1¬ļ y 2¬ļ orden, seg√ļn la clasificaci√≥n jer√°rquica de r√≠os de Horton (1945) modificada por Strahler (1952). Para ello, a partir de investigaciones bibliogr√°ficas, documentales y de campo, estudios de caso, datos e informaci√≥n de 03 (tres) procesos de proyectos de intervenciones en cursos de agua perennes de 1er y 2do orden, que fueron objetos, se utilizan como estudios de caso. en la Agencia Estatal del Medio Ambiente de Pernambuco (CPRH), entre los a√Īos 2011 y 2017. Finalmente, se verifica a trav√©s de los resultados de los valores num√©ricos y gr√°ficos presentados, que MASRios tiene la capacidad de integrar los impactos hidroambientales en estudio, como as√≠ como convenio t√©cnico para apoyar la evaluaci√≥n de la sostenibilidad de este tipo de proyectos.Para avaliar a viabilidade ambiental de interven√ß√Ķes estruturais em ambientes fluviais, as escolhas pela utiliza√ß√£o por metodologias espec√≠ficas baseadas em indicadores de sustentabilidade, podem ser ferramentas √ļteis ao embasamento t√©cnico da an√°lise do licenciamento ambiental. Desse modo, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo avaliar a Metodologia para Avalia√ß√£o de Sustentabilidade Hidroambiental para Interven√ß√Ķes em Rios Perenes (MASRios), a partir de sua aplica√ß√£o para an√°lise de projetos de barragens, dragagens, retifica√ß√Ķes e requalifica√ß√Ķes em rios perenes de primeira e segunda ordens, conforme classifica√ß√£o fluvial hier√°rquica. A partir de pesquisa bibliogr√°fica, documental e de campo, s√£o utilizados como estudos de caso dados e informa√ß√Ķes provenientes de tr√™s de projetos de interven√ß√Ķes em cursos d‚Äô√°gua perenes, que foram objetos de licenciamento ambiental na Ag√™ncia Estadual de Meio Ambiente de Pernambuco, entre os anos de 2011 e 2017. Por fim, verifica-se atrav√©s dos resultados dos valores num√©ricos e gr√°ficos apresentados, que a MASRios possui capacidade de integra√ß√£o entre os impactos hidroambientais em estudo, como tamb√©m, concord√Ęncia t√©cnica para dar subs√≠dios √† avalia√ß√£o de sustentabilidade desses tipos de projetos. Palavras-chave: Instrumento de gest√£o ambiental. Indicadores de sustentabilidade hidroambiental. Sistema fluvial. Licenciamento Ambiental. Viabilidade ambiental

    Environmental conservation index of urban streams of Cavouco and Parnamirim streams, Brazil

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    Historically, urban watercourses have been rectified and¬†channeled, directly impacting their hydrological dynamics and¬†the water cycle. Currently, the recovery of environmental and¬†social services of urban rivers and streams has been a worldwide¬†trend in an attempt to make cities more sustainable. This study¬†applied the Environmental Conservation Index of Urban Streams¬†(ECIUS), developed by Cometti et al. (2022), to two streams in¬†the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The ECIUS is made up of¬†nine indicators, based on the pressure-state-response model¬†and calculated using a system based on fuzzy rules. The Cavouco¬†stream presented the ‚Äúregular‚ÄĚ ECIUS in stretch 1 and ‚Äúbad‚ÄĚ in¬†stretches 2, 3, 4, and 5. As for the Parnamirim stream, sections 1¬†and 2 presented ECIUS as ‚Äúbad‚ÄĚ and section 3 as ‚Äúterrible.‚ÄĚ ECIUS¬†proved to be an easy-to-apply tool for modeling and translating¬†complex environmental and social variables into easy-tounderstand¬†linguistic variables. The tool can be used for diagnosis¬†and to serve as a decision support for urban stream revitalization¬†and monitoring interventions.Historicamente os cursos d‚Äô√°gua urbanos t√™m sido retificados e¬†canalizados, o que impacta diretamente a sua din√Ęmica hidrol√≥gica e o¬†ciclo da √°gua. Atualmente, a recupera√ß√£o dos servi√ßos ambientais e¬†sociais de rios e riachos urbanos tem sido uma tend√™ncia mundial na¬†tentativa de tornar as cidades mais sustent√°veis. Este estudo aplicou¬†o √ćndice de Conserva√ß√£o Ambiental de Riachos Urbanos (√ćCARU),¬†desenvolvido por Cometti et al. (2022), em dois riachos na cidade do¬†Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. O √ćCARU √© formado por nove indicadores,¬†baseados no modelo Press√£o-Estado-Resposta (PER) e calculado por¬†meio de um Sistema Baseado em Regras Difusas (SBRD). O riacho¬†do Cavouco apresentou o √ćCARU ‚Äúregular‚ÄĚ no trecho 1 e ‚Äúruim‚ÄĚ nos¬†trechos 2, 3, 4 e 5. J√° para o riacho do Parnamirim, os trechos 1 e 2¬†apresentaram o √ćCARU ‚Äúruim‚ÄĚ e o trecho 3 ‚Äúterr√≠vel‚ÄĚ. O √ćCARU mostrouse¬†uma ferramenta de f√°cil aplica√ß√£o para a modelagem e tradu√ß√£o de¬†vari√°veis ambientais e sociais complexas, em vari√°veis lingu√≠sticas de¬†f√°cil compreens√£o. A ferramenta pode ser utilizada para o diagn√≥stico¬†e servir de apoio √† decis√£o para interven√ß√Ķes de revitaliza√ß√£o e¬†monitoramento de riachos urbanos
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