203 research outputs found

    Monorail/Foxa2 regulates floorplate differentiation and specification of oligodendrocytes, serotonergic raphe neurones and cranial motoneurones

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    In this study, we elucidate the roles of the winged-helix transcription factor Foxa2 in ventral CNS development in zebrafish. Through cloning of monorail (mol), which we find encodes the transcription factor Foxa2, and phenotypic analysis of mol(-/-) embryos, we show that floorplate is induced in the absence of Foxa2 function but fails to further differentiate. In mol(-/-) mutants, expression of Foxa and Hh family genes is not maintained in floorplate cells and lateral expansion of the floorplate fails to occur. Our results suggest that this is due to defects both in the regulation of Hh activity in medial floorplate cells as well as cell-autonomous requirements for Foxa2 in the prospective laterally positioned floorplate cells themselves. Foxa2 is also required for induction and/or patterning of several distinct cell types in the ventral CNS. Serotonergic neurones of the raphe nucleus and the trochlear motor nucleus are absent in mol(-/-) embryos, and oculomotor and facial motoneurones ectopically occupy ventral CNS midline positions in the midbrain and hindbrain. There is also a severe reduction of prospective oligodendrocytes in the midbrain and hindbrain. Finally, in the absence of Foxa2, at least two likely Hh pathway target genes are ectopically expressed in more dorsal regions of the midbrain and hindbrain ventricular neuroepithelium, raising the possibility that Foxa2 activity may normally be required to limit the range of action of secreted Hh proteins

    Holographic Superconductors with Power-Maxwell field

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    With the Sturm-Liouville analytical and numerical methods, we investigate the behaviors of the holographic superconductors by introducing a complex charged scalar field coupled with a Power-Maxwell field in the background of dd-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole. We note that the Power-Maxwell field takes the special asymptotical solution near boundary which is different from all known cases. We find that the larger power parameter qq for the Power-Maxwell field makes it harder for the scalar hair to be condensated. We also find that, for different qq, the critical exponent of the system is still 1/2, which seems to be an universal property for various nonlinear electrodynamics if the scalar field takes the form of this paper.Comment: 14 pages, 1 figure, and 2 table

    Actin Flows Mediate a Universal Coupling between Cell Speed and Cell Persistence

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    Cell movement has essential functions in development, immunity, and cancer. Various cell migration patterns have been reported, but no general rule has emerged so far. Here, we show on the basis of experimental data in vitro and in vivo that cell persistence, which quantifies the straightness of trajectories, is robustly coupled to cell migration speed. We suggest that this universal coupling constitutes a generic law of cell migration, which originates in the advection of polarity cues by an actin cytoskeleton undergoing flows at the cellular scale. Our analysis relies on a theoretical model that we validate by measuring the persistence of cells upon modulation of actin flow speeds and upon optogenetic manipulation of the binding of an actin regulator to actin filaments. Beyond the quantitative prediction of the coupling, the model yields a generic phase diagram of cellular trajectories, which recapitulates the full range of observed migration patterns

    The Cyprinodon variegatus genome reveals gene expression changes underlying differences in skull morphology among closely related species

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    Genes in durophage intersection set at 15 dpf. This is a comma separated table of the genes in the 15 dpf durophage intersection set. Given are edgeR results for each pairwise comparison. Columns indicating whether a gene is included in the intersection set at a threshold of 1.5 or 2 fold are provided. (CSV 13 kb

    Pair-Wise Regulation of Convergence and Extension Cell Movements by Four Phosphatases via RhoA

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    Various signaling pathways regulate shaping of the main body axis during early vertebrate development. Here, we focused on the role of protein-tyrosine phosphatase signaling in convergence and extension cell movements. We identified Ptpn20 as a structural paralogue of PTP-BL and both phosphatases were required for normal gastrulation cell movements. Interestingly, knockdowns of PTP-BL and Ptpn20 evoked similar developmental defects as knockdown of RPTPα and PTPε. Co-knockdown of RPTPα and PTP-BL, but not Ptpn20, had synergistic effects and conversely, PTPε and Ptpn20, but not PTP-BL, cooperated, demonstrating the specificity of our approach. RPTPα and PTPε knockdowns were rescued by constitutively active RhoA, whereas PTP-BL and Ptpn20 knockdowns were rescued by dominant negative RhoA. Consistently, RPTPα and PTP-BL had opposite effects on RhoA activation, both in a PTP-dependent manner. Downstream of the PTPs, we identified NGEF and Arhgap29, regulating RhoA activation and inactivation, respectively, in convergence and extension cell movements. We propose a model in which two phosphatases activate RhoA and two phosphatases inhibit RhoA, resulting in proper cell polarization and normal convergence and extension cell movements

    How Do Honeybees Attract Nestmates Using Waggle Dances in Dark and Noisy Hives?

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    It is well known that honeybees share information related to food sources with nestmates using a dance language that is representative of symbolic communication among non-primates. Some honeybee species engage in visually apparent behavior, walking in a figure-eight pattern inside their dark hives. It has been suggested that sounds play an important role in this dance language, even though a variety of wing vibration sounds are produced by honeybee behaviors in hives. It has been shown that dances emit sounds primarily at about 250–300 Hz, which is in the same frequency range as honeybees' flight sounds. Thus the exact mechanism whereby honeybees attract nestmates using waggle dances in such a dark and noisy hive is as yet unclear. In this study, we used a flight simulator in which honeybees were attached to a torque meter in order to analyze the component of bees' orienting response caused only by sounds, and not by odor or by vibrations sensed by their legs. We showed using single sound localization that honeybees preferred sounds around 265 Hz. Furthermore, according to sound discrimination tests using sounds of the same frequency, honeybees preferred rhythmic sounds. Our results demonstrate that frequency and rhythmic components play a complementary role in localizing dance sounds. Dance sounds were presumably developed to share information in a dark and noisy environment

    Loss of Ribosomal Protein L11 Affects Zebrafish Embryonic Development through a p53-Dependent Apoptotic Response

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    Ribosome is responsible for protein synthesis in all organisms and ribosomal proteins (RPs) play important roles in the formation of a functional ribosome. L11 was recently shown to regulate p53 activity through a direct binding with MDM2 and abrogating the MDM2-induced p53 degradation in response to ribosomal stress. However, the studies were performed in cell lines and the significance of this tumor suppressor function of L11 has yet to be explored in animal models. To investigate the effects of the deletion of L11 and its physiological relevance to p53 activity, we knocked down the rpl11 gene in zebrafish and analyzed the p53 response. Contrary to the cell line-based results, our data indicate that an L11 deficiency in a model organism activates the p53 pathway. The L11-deficient embryos (morphants) displayed developmental abnormalities primarily in the brain, leading to embryonic lethality within 6–7 days post fertilization. Extensive apoptosis was observed in the head region of the morphants, thus correlating the morphological defects with apparent cell death. A decrease in total abundance of genes involved in neural patterning of the brain was observed in the morphants, suggesting a reduction in neural progenitor cells. Upregulation of the genes involved in the p53 pathway were observed in the morphants. Simultaneous knockdown of the p53 gene rescued the developmental defects and apoptosis in the morphants. These results suggest that ribosomal dysfunction due to the loss of L11 activates a p53-dependent checkpoint response to prevent improper embryonic development

    Galileon Higgs vortices

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    Vortex solutions are topologically stable field configurations that can play an important role in condensed matter, field theory, and cosmology. We investigate vortex configuration in a 2+1 dimensional Abelian Higgs theory supplemented by higher order derivative self-interactions, related with Galileons. Our vortex solutions have features that make them qualitatively different from well-known Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen configurations, since the derivative interactions turn on gauge invariant field profiles that break axial symmetry. By promoting the system to a 3+1 dimensional string configuration, we study its gravitational backreaction. Our results are all derived within a specific, analytically manageable system, and might offer indications for understanding Galileonic interactions and screening mechanisms around configurations that are not spherically symmetric, but only at most cylindrically symmetric.Comment: 26 pages, 8 figure

    Circadian Consequence of Socio-Sexual Interactions in Fruit Flies Drosophila melanogaster

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    In fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, courtship is an elaborate ritual comprising chasing, dancing and singing by males to lure females for mating. Courtship interactions peak in the night and heterosexual couples display enhanced nighttime activity. What we do not know is if such socio-sexual interactions (SSI) leave long-lasting after-effects on circadian clock(s). Here we report the results of our study aimed at examining the after-effects of SSI (as a result of co-habitation of males and females in groups) between males and females on their circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Males undergo reduction in the evening activity peak and lengthening of circadian period, while females show a decrease in overall activity. Such after-effects, at least in males, require functional circadian clocks during SSI as loss-of-function clock mutants and wild type flies interacting under continuous light (LL), do not display them. Interestingly, males with electrically silenced Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF)-positive ventral lateral (LNv) clock neurons continue to show SSI mediated reduction in evening activity peak, suggesting that the LNv clock neurons are dispensable for SSI mediated after-effects on locomotor activity rhythm. Such after-effects in females may not be clock-dependent because clock manipulated females with prior exposure to males show decrease in overall activity, more or less similar to rhythmic wild type females. The expression of SSI mediated after-effects requires a functional olfactory system in males because males with compromised olfactory ability do not display them. These results suggest that SSI causes male-specific, long-lasting changes in the circadian clocks of Drosophila, which requires the presence of functional clocks and intact olfactory ability in males

    The Tumor Suppressor PRDM5 Regulates Wnt Signaling at Early Stages of Zebrafish Development

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    PRDM genes are a family of transcriptional regulators that modulate cellular processes such as differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. Some family members are involved in tissue or organ maturation, and are differentially expressed in specific phases of embryonic development. PRDM5 is a recently identified family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor and behaves as a putative tumor suppressor in different types of cancer. Using gene expression profiling, we found that transcriptional targets of PRDM5 in human U2OS cells include critical genes involved in developmental processes, and specifically in regulating wnt signaling. We therefore assessed PRDM5 function in vivo by performing loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish embryos. Depletion of prdm5 resulted in impairment of morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and increased the occurrence of the masterblind phenotype in axin+/− embryos, characterized by the loss of eyes and telencephalon. Overexpression of PRDM5 mRNA had opposite effects on the development of anterior neural structures, and resulted in embryos with a shorter body axis due to posterior truncation, a bigger head and abnormal somites. In situ hybridization experiments aimed at analyzing the integrity of wnt pathways during gastrulation at the level of the prechordal plate revealed inhibition of non canonical PCP wnt signaling in embryos overexpressing PRDM5, and over-activation of wnt/β-catenin signaling in embryos lacking Prdm5. Our data demonstrate that PRDM5 regulates the expression of components of both canonical and non canonical wnt pathways and negatively modulates wnt signaling in vivo