954 research outputs found

    Darboux dressing and undressing for the ultradiscrete KdV equation

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    We solve the direct scattering problem for the ultradiscrete Korteweg de Vries (udKdV) equation, over R\mathbb R for any potential with compact (finite) support, by explicitly constructing bound state and non-bound state eigenfunctions. We then show how to reconstruct the potential in the scattering problem at any time, using an ultradiscrete analogue of a Darboux transformation. This is achieved by obtaining data uniquely characterising the soliton content and the `background' from the initial potential by Darboux transformation.Comment: 41 pages, 5 figures // Full, unabridged version, including two appendice

    Bäcklund transformations for noncommutative anti-self-dual Yang-Mills equations

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    We present Bäcklund transformations for the non-commutative anti-self-dual Yang–Mills equations where the gauge group is G = GL(2) and use it to generate a series of exact solutions from a simple seed solution. The solutions generated by this approach are represented in terms of quasi-determinants and belong to a non-commutative version of the Atiyah–Ward ansatz. In the commutative limit, our results coincide with those by Corrigan, Fairlie, Yates and Goddard

    Maximum fidelity retransmission of mirror symmetric qubit states

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    In this paper we address the problem of optimal reconstruction of a quantum state from the result of a single measurement when the original quantum state is known to be a member of some specified set. A suitable figure of merit for this process is the fidelity, which is the probability that the state we construct on the basis of the measurement result is found by a subsequent test to match the original state. We consider the maximisation of the fidelity for a set of three mirror symmetric qubit states. In contrast to previous examples, we find that the strategy which minimises the probability of erroneously identifying the state does not generally maximise the fidelity

    Entanglement and Collective Quantum Operations

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    We show how shared entanglement, together with classical communication and local quantum operations, can be used to perform an arbitrary collective quantum operation upon N spatially-separated qubits. A simple teleportation-based protocol for achieving this, which requires 2(N-1) ebits of shared, bipartite entanglement and 4(N-1) classical bits, is proposed. In terms of the total required entanglement, this protocol is shown to be optimal for even N in both the asymptotic limit and for `one-shot' applications

    The azimuthal component of Poynting's vector and the angular momentum of light

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    The usual description in basic electromagnetic theory of the linear and angular momenta of light is centred upon the identification of Poynting's vector as the linear momentum density and its cross product with position, or azimuthal component, as the angular momentum density. This seemingly reasonable approach brings with it peculiarities, however, in particular with regards to the separation of angular momentum into orbital and spin contributions, which has sometimes been regarded as contrived. In the present paper, we observe that densities are not unique, which leads us to ask whether the usual description is, in fact, the most natural choice. To answer this, we adopt a fundamental rather than heuristic approach by first identifying appropriate symmetries of Maxwell's equations and subsequently applying Noether's theorem to obtain associated conservation laws. We do not arrive at the usual description. Rather, an equally acceptable one in which the relationship between linear and angular momenta is nevertheless more subtle and in which orbital and spin contributions emerge separately and with transparent forms

    B\"acklund Transformations and the Atiyah-Ward ansatz for Noncommutative Anti-Self-Dual Yang-Mills Equations

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    We present Backlund transformations for the noncommutative anti-self-dual Yang-Mills equation where the gauge group is G=GL(2) and use it to generate a series of exact solutions from a simple seed solution. The solutions generated by this approach are represented in terms of quasideterminants. We also explain the origins of all of the ingredients of the Backlund transformations within the framework of noncommutative twistor theory. In particular we show that the generated solutions belong to a noncommutative version of the Atiyah-Ward ansatz.Comment: v2: 21 pages, published versio

    Maximum Confidence Quantum Measurements

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    We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Cloning, Purification, and Partial Characterization of the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) Helicase

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    The MCM gene from the archaeon Halobacterium, with and without its intein, was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector, overexpressed and the protein was purified and antibodies were generated. The antibodies were used to demonstrate that in vivo only the processed enzyme, without the intein, could be detected

    Soliton solutions of noncommutative anti-self-dual Yang-Mills equations

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    We present exact soliton solutions of anti-self-dual Yang-Mills equations for G = GL(N) on noncommutative Euclidean spaces in four-dimension by using the Darboux transformations. Generated solutions are represented by quasideterminants of Wronski matrices in compact forms. We give special one-soliton solutions for G = GL(2) whose energy density can be real-valued. We find that the soliton solutions are the same as the commutative ones and can be interpreted as one-domain walls in four-dimension. Scattering processes of the multi-soliton solutions are also discussed

    Statistics of photon-subtracted and photon-added states

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    The subtraction or addition of a prescribed number of photons to a field mode does not, in general, simply shift the probability distribution by the number of subtracted or added photons. Subtraction of a photon from an initial coherent state, for example, leaves the photon statistics unchanged and the same process applied to an initial thermal state increases the mean photon number. We present a detailed analysis of the effects of the initial photon statistics on those of the state from which the photons have been subtracted or to which they have been added. Our approach is based on two closely related moment-generating functions, one that is well established and one that we introduce