3,502 research outputs found

    How the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche can be succinctly encapsulated within his Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy

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    This thesis aims to illustrate that the broad philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche can be subordinated to his conceptual dichotomy: the Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy. Through an analysis of the Birth of Tragedy, Beyond Good and Evil, Twilight of the Idols, as well as a brief analysis of the Will to Power, I will make the case that the dichotomy is the umbrella under which all Nietzschean concepts are to be read and understood. The texts that were chosen represent key stages in Nietzsche’s intellectual development – from the Birth of Tragedy, which marks the beginning of Nietzschean philosophy; to Twilight of the Idols, which represents the end. The constituent parts of the dichotomy are to be understood in two contexts: firstly, the terms (Apollonian/Dionysian) are used to denote the forces required for the creation of art; secondly, the terms come to signify the type of individual who makes use of those forces as it is the case that different types of art can be created by different types of men. Nietzschean philosophy is to be understood through art as it is explicitly stated that the essence of existence is one of a perpetual Becoming wherein there exists only that which is created by man, for man, in service of man’s own will to power. All attempts to discern a fixed Being in-itself existing outside of this will to power are false and are indicative of a weak and sickly disposition, the symptoms of which are found in the progenitors’ art (be it a morality, table of categories, or a transcendent deity). Through the positing of the thing-in-itself as the will to power Nietzsche conceptualises the world of Becoming as a canvas onto which two different types of men imprint a Being which reveals, physiologically, their endowment as either Apollonian or Dionysian

    Growth and Genetic Analysis of Pejibaye (Bactris Gasipaes Kunth, Palmae)in Hawai'i

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    Pejibaye or peach palm {Bactris gasipaes, Kunth) was introduced into Hawai’i to supply the gourmet market with fresh heart of palm. New crop introduction requires evaluation of crop adaptation to its new environment and planning for future development, including genetic improvement. Leaf number of open-pollinated Benjamin Constant (Putumayo landrace) progenies was lower at harvest (6-8) than elsewhere (8- 10), and offshoot number dropped dramatically from first harvest (6.5) to second harvest (2). Allometric equations for estimating whole plant leaf area and biomass were developed, using height and leaf number predictors. No significant plant population (density) effects on individual plant dimensions or growth were found over the range of 3333 to 6666 plants/ha. Relative growth rate (RGR) and unit leaf rate (E ^ between nursery and first harvest were highly correlated (r = -0.99 and -0.95, respectively) with earliness (days to harvest). The early progenies partitioned photoassimilates differently; two had high E^, while one had moderate E^ and partitioned preferentially to leaf area, resulting in a higher leaf area ratio. Heart of palm yields were close to 900 kg/ha after 12 months of harvest and 1400 kg/ha after 18 months, both comparable to tropical American yields. When edible stem and leaf were added to the yields, these increased to 2.8 and 4.5 t/ha of marketable product, respectively. Quantitative genetic analysis of growth parameters suggested high levels of inbreeding in the germplasm studied, since the narrow-sense heritabilities were double those observed in other perennials. Additive genetic variances for RGR and earliness suggested the potential for significant response to selection, but phenotypic variation varied depending on the interval over which RGR was estimated. The lowest estimate of RGR (over an entire development phase) provided the smallest response to selection but is similar to the response observed in other crops. Allozyme heterozygosity was remarkably low, ranging from 0.038 to 0.099, with a mean of 0.074, on par with inbred crops, rather than outbreeders. There was a lack of correlation between allozyme heterozygosity and growth parameters and morphological traits

    Domestication and Dispersal of Native Crops in Amazonia

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    Recent decades have witnessed the rapid expansion of interest in and research on the domestication of crop plants worldwide. These species are the basis of the rise to dominance of Homo sapiens over the last 10,000 years. New techniques in archaeology and the expansion of molecular genetics are uncovering abundant evidence to support or refute old hypotheses about human domestication of crops and creation of food production systems that fueled population expansions and linguistic diasporas, and to raise new hypotheses. In Amazonia and elsewhere in lowland South America, archaeologists are starting to examine these hypotheses in earnest, and geneticists are starting to generate data to identify crop origins and dispersals. Archaeologists now generally agree that Amazonia was inhabited by numerous advanced societies before European conquest, especially along the major white water rivers and in other favorable locations for food production, and that these societies had domesticated significant areas of numerous landscapes. This special section of Tipití summarizes a set of presentations given during the recent 2nd International Meeting on Amazonian Archaeology, held in Manaus, Amazonas, in September 2010. An overview of plant domestication opens the sequence, followed by new archaeobotanical evidence from the southeastern Colombian and central Brazilian Amazonia and from the southern savannas of Brazil, and new molecular genetic evidence about the origins of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and the dispersal of manioc (Manihot esculenta), maize (Zea mays), and peach palm in lowland South America

    History of Substance in Philosophy

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    A lot of words investigated by philosophers get their inception for conventional or extra-philosophical dialect. Yet the idea of substance is basically a philosophical term of art. Its employments in normal dialect tend to derive, often in a twisted way, different from its philosophical usage. Despite this, the idea of substance differs from philosophers, reliant upon the school of thought in which it is been expressed. There is an ordinary concept in play when philosophers discuss “substance”, and this is seen in the concept of object, or thing when this is contrasted with properties, attributes or events. There is also a difference in view when in the sense that while the realists would develop a materialistic theory of substance, the idealist would develop a metaphysical theory of substance. The problem surrounding substance spans through the history of philosophy. The queries have often been what is substance of? And can there be substance without its attributes? This paper tends to expose the historical problems surrounding substance. This paper criticizes the thinking which presupposes that there could be a substance without its attributes or substance existing alone. This paper adopts complimentary ontology principles which state that for anything to exist, it must serve as a missing connection to reality. This suggests that everything interconnects to each other and substance cannot exist in isolation

    Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in central Amazonia

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    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for research and debate concerning the origins, evolution, history and contemporary cultivation of bitter manioc in Amazonia and beyond

    Deposition on fibrous filters in the interception region

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    When deposit accumulates inside a fibrous filter the fluid flow through the filter, and hence the filters collection efficiency, is altered. Although this is well known, it is difficult to model the particle build up within a filter. However it is crucial that a full understanding of the process of particle deposition and its effects upon further deposition is obtained in order to understand the performances of fibrous filters. We have been developing a numerical model of fibrous filtration aimed at investigating deposition due to various mechanisms and the effect filter properties and particle characteristics have upon it (Dunnett and Clement 2006, 2009). We have shown that, for small particles where the dominant mechanism by which particles deposit is diffusion, the porosity of the deposit formed does not significantly influence further deposition. For larger particles the porosity of the deposit has been seen to have a greater influence upon the flow field, and hence upon particle behaviour. In this paper we consider particles for which interception is the main mechanism of deposition

    Critical trajectories for aerosol particles: their determination for impaction in fibrous filters and in oscillating bubbles

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    Critical trajectories for aerosol particles in a gas flow are ones which divide an aerosol flux into different parts, for example aerosol which is, and is not deposited. They can exist in all gas flows in which aerosol motion is governed by gas velocity rather than by diffusion and we describe two mathematical methods for their calculation. For deposition by impaction on a filter fibre it is necessary to solve the differential equations for particle motion and an efficient iterative procedure is used to obtain the critical trajectories. Jonas and Schütz (1988) have shown that aerosol impaction is an important mechanism for the removal of aerosol from an oscillating sodium vapour bubble formed during a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a fast reactor. For these one-dimensional oscillations, when the gas velocity within a bubble is a linear function of position, we extend their work by calculating critical trajectories directly from the integral equation describing a depositing particle for two models with different initial conditions. With initially entrained uniform aerosol, the percentage impacted is independent of the inclusion of gravity in the calculations as long as regions empty of aerosol do not appear in the bubbles. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of amplitudes of bubble oscillations and aerosol in the size range 1-30 m. In agreement with Jonas and Schütz, we find that a considerable fraction of the aerosol at larger sizes is removed by impaction. For aerosol below 20 m in size, the removal fraction does not always increase with the oscillation amplitude, but appears to peak at a certain value of the amplitude. This could indicate a kind of resonant behaviour coupling aerosol entrainment to oscillations in the gas velocity. The theory is applicable to different types of bubble oscillation

    Numerical investigation into the loading behaviour of filters operating in the diffusional and interception deposition regimes

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    Using a previously developed theory, which allows for changes in gas flow from deposit growth, calculations are performed for deposition on an initially cylindrical fibre. The deposit is given a specified porosity through which the flow is calculated from Darcy's equation using the Beavers and Joseph (1967) boundary condition at the outer boundary. Results are obtained for different porosities φ the volume fraction of space in the deposit, for flow conditions such that deposition occurs by the mechanisms of diffusion and interception, but not impaction (Stk1 and interception dominates, deposition increases with increase in φ and is significant for φ ≥0.9 where more streamlines pass through the deposit. The shape of the deposit remains peaked at the front of the fibre, at the forward stagnation point, but, if a deposit has an initial flat front, it grows into a shape peaked away from the stagnation point, as observed by Kanaoka et al. (1986). Possible reasons for this behaviour are discussed
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