238 research outputs found

    MiR-155 Induction by F. novicida but Not the Virulent F. tularensis Results in SHIP Down-Regulation and Enhanced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Response

    Get PDF
    The intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia and is known for its ability to subvert host immune responses. Previous work from our laboratory identified the PI3K/Akt pathway and SHIP as critical modulators of host resistance to Francisella. Here, we show that SHIP expression is strongly down-regulated in monocytes and macrophages following infection with F. tularensis novicida (F.n.). To account for this negative regulation we explored the possibility that microRNAs (miRs) that target SHIP may be induced during infection. There is one miR that is predicted to target SHIP, miR-155. We tested for induction and found that F.n. induced miR-155 both in primary monocytes/macrophages and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assays we confirmed that miR-155 led to down-regulation of SHIP, showing that it specifically targets the SHIP 3′UTR. Further experiments showed that miR-155 and BIC, the gene that encodes miR-155, were induced as early as four hours post-infection in primary human monocytes. This expression was dependent on TLR2/MyD88 and did not require inflammasome activation. Importantly, miR-155 positively regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release in human monocytes infected with Francisella. In sharp contrast, we found that the highly virulent type A SCHU S4 strain of Francisella tularensis (F.t.) led to a significantly lower miR-155 response than the less virulent F.n. Hence, F.n. induces miR-155 expression and leads to down-regulation of SHIP, resulting in enhanced pro-inflammatory responses. However, impaired miR-155 induction by SCHU S4 may help explain the lack of both SHIP down-regulation and pro-inflammatory response and may account for the virulence of Type A Francisella

    Mechanism of subunit interaction at ketosynthase-dehydratase junctions in trans-AT polyketide synthases

    Get PDF
    Modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce numerous structurally complex natural products with diverse applications in medicine and agriculture. They typically consist of several multienzyme subunits that utilize structurally-defined docking domains (DDs) at their N- and C-termini to ensure correct assembly into functional multi-protein complexes. Here we report a fundamentally different mechanism for subunit assembly in trans-AT modular PKSs at the junction between ketosynthase (KS) and dehydratase (DH) domains. This involves direct interaction of a largely unstructured docking domain (DD) at the C-terminus of the KS with the surface of the downstream DH. Acyl transfer assays and mechanism-based cross-linking established that the DD is required for the KS to communicate with the acyl carrier protein appended to the DH. Two distinct regions for binding of the DD to the DH were identified using NMR spectroscopy, carbene foot-printing and mutagenesis, providing a foundation for future elucidation of the molecular basis for interaction specificity

    One step closer to understanding the role of bacteria in diabetic foot ulcers: characterising the microbiome of ulcers

    Get PDF
    Background: The aim of this study was to characterise the microbiome of new and recurrent diabetic foot ulcers using 16S amplicon sequencing (16S AS), allowing the identification of a wider range of bacterial species that may be important in the development of chronicity in these debilitating wounds. Twenty patients not receiving antibiotics for the past three months were selected, with swabs taken from each individual for culture and 16S AS. DNA was isolated using a combination of bead beating and kit extraction. Samples were sequenced on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform. Results: Conventional laboratory culture showed positive growth from only 55 % of the patients, whereas 16S AS was positive for 75 % of the patients (41 unique genera, representing 82 different operational taxonomic units (OTU’s). S. aureus was isolated in 72 % of culture-positive samples, whereas the most commonly detected bacteria in all ulcers were Peptoniphilusspp., Anaerococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with the addition of Staphylococcus spp. in new ulcers. The majority of OTU’s residing in both new and recurrent ulcers (over 67 %) were identified as facultative or strict anaerobic Gram-positive organisms. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed no difference in clustering between the two groups (new and recurrent ulcers). Conclusions: The abundance of anaerobic bacteria has important implications for treatment as it suggests that the microbiome of each ulcer “starts afresh” and that, although diverse, are not distinctly different from one another with respect to new or recurrent ulcers. Therefore, when considering antibiotic therapy the duration of current ulceration may be a more important consideration than a history of healed ulcer

    Prognostic factors for recovery following acute lateral ankle ligament sprain: a systematic review.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: One-third of individuals who sustain an acute lateral ankle ligament sprain suffer significant disability due to pain, functional instability, mechanical instability or recurrent sprain after recovery plateaus at 1 to 5 years post injury. The identification of early prognostic factors associated with poor recovery may provide an opportunity for early-targeted intervention and improve outcome. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of AMED, EMBASE, Psych Info, CINAHL, SportDiscus, PubMed, CENTRAL, PEDro, OpenGrey, abstracts and conference proceedings from inception to September 2016. Prospective studies investigating the association between baseline prognostic factors and recovery over time were included. Two independent assessors performed the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment of the studies. A narrative synthesis is presented due to inability to meta-analyse results due to clinical and statistical heterogeneity. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 3396 titles/abstracts after duplicates were removed. Thirty-six full text articles were then assessed, nine of which met the study inclusion criteria. Six were prospective cohorts, and three were secondary analyses of randomised controlled trials. Results are presented for nine studies that presented baseline prognostic factors for recovery after an acute ankle sprain. Age, female gender, swelling, restricted range of motion, limited weight bearing ability, pain (at the medial joint line and on weight-bearing dorsi-flexion at 4 weeks, and pain at rest at 3 months), higher injury severity rating, palpation/stress score, non-inversion mechanism injury, lower self-reported recovery, re-sprain within 3 months, MRI determined number of sprained ligaments, severity and bone bruise were found to be independent predictors of poor recovery. Age was one prognostic factor that demonstrated a consistent association with outcome in three studies, however cautious interpretation is advised. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between prognostic factors and poor recovery after an acute lateral ankle sprain are largely inconclusive. At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend any factor as an independent predictor of outcome. There is a need for well-conducted prospective cohort studies with adequate sample size and long-term follow-up to provide robust evidence on prognostic factors of recovery following an acute lateral ankle sprain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospero registration: CRD42014014471

    Specific Thiazolidinediones Inhibit Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Proliferation and Cause Cell Cycle Arrest in a PPARγ Independent Manner

    Get PDF
    Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, such as the thiazolinediones (TZDs), have been studied for their potential use as cancer therapeutic agents. We investigated the effect of four TZDs--Rosiglitazone (Rosi), Ciglitazone (CGZ), Troglitazone (TGZ), and Pioglitazone (Pio)--on ovarian cancer cell proliferation, PPARγ expression and PPAR luciferase reporter activity. We explored whether TZDs act in a PPARγ dependent or independent manner by utilizing molecular approaches to inhibit or overexpress PPARγ activity.Treatment with CGZ or TGZ for 24 hours decreased proliferation in three ovarian cancer cell lines, Ovcar3, CaOv3, and Skov3, whereas Rosi and Pio had no effect. This decrease in Ovcar3 cell proliferation was due to a higher fraction of cells in the G(0)/G(1) stage of the cell cycle. CGZ and TGZ treatment increased apoptosis after 4 hours of treatment but not after 8 or 12 hours. Treatment with TGZ or CGZ increased PPARγ mRNA expression in Ovcar3 cells; however, protein levels were unchanged. Surprisingly, luciferase promoter assays revealed that none of the TZDs increased PPARγ activity. Overexpression of wild type PPARγ increased reporter activity. This was further augmented by TGZ, Rosi, and Pio indicating that these cells have the endogenous capacity to mediate PPARγ transactivation. To determine whether PPARγ mediates the TZD-induced decrease in proliferation, cells were treated with CGZ or TGZ in the absence or presence of a dominant negative (DN) or wild type overexpression PPARγ construct. Neither vector changed the TZD-mediated cell proliferation suggesting this effect of TZDs on ovarian cancer cells may be PPARγ independent.CGZ and TGZ cause a decrease in ovarian cancer cell proliferation that is PPARγ independent. This concept is supported by the finding that a DN or overexpression of the wild type PPARγ did not affect the changes in cell proliferation and cell cycle

    Scaphoid Waist Internal Fixation for Fractures Trial (SWIFFT) protocol : a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of cast treatment versus surgical fixation for the treatment of bi-cortical, minimally displaced fractures of the scaphoid waist in adults

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: A scaphoid fracture is the most common type of carpal fracture affecting young active people. The optimal management of this fracture is uncertain. When treated with a cast, 88 to 90 % of these fractures unite; however, for the remaining 10-12 % the non-union almost invariably leads to arthritis. The alternative is surgery to fix the scaphoid with a screw at the outset. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of 438 adult patients with a "clear" and "bicortical" scaphoid waist fracture on plain radiographs to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of plaster cast treatment (with fixation of those that fail to unite) versus early surgical fixation. The plaster cast treatment will be immobilisation in a below elbow cast for 6 to 10 weeks followed by mobilisation. If non-union is confirmed on plain radiographs and/or Computerised Tomogram at 6 to 12 weeks, then urgent surgical fixation will be performed. This is being compared with immediate surgical fixation with surgeons using their preferred technique and implant. These treatments will be undertaken in trauma units across the United Kingdom. The primary outcome and end-point will be the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (a patient self-reported assessment of wrist pain and function) at 52 weeks and also measured at 6, 12, 26 weeks and 5 years. Secondary outcomes include an assessment of radiological union of the fracture; quality of life; recovery of wrist range and strength; and complications. We will also qualitatively investigate patient experiences of their treatment. DISCUSSION: Scaphoid fractures are an important public health problem as they predominantly affect young active individuals in the more productive working years of their lives. Non-union, if untreated, can lead to arthritis which can disable patients at a very young age. There is a rapidly increasing trend for immediate surgical fixation of these fractures but there is insufficient evidence from existing RCTs to support this. The SWIFFT Trial is a rigorously designed and adequately powered study which aims to contribute to the evidence-base to inform clinical decisions for the treatment of this common fracture in adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register ( ISRCTN67901257 ). Date registration assigned was 13/02/2013

    Glutathione Provides a Source of Cysteine Essential for Intracellular Multiplication of Francisella tularensis

    Get PDF
    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterium causing the zoonotic disease tularemia. Its ability to multiply and survive in macrophages is critical for its virulence. By screening a bank of HimarFT transposon mutants of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) to isolate intracellular growth-deficient mutants, we selected one mutant in a gene encoding a putative γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). This gene (FTL_0766) was hence designated ggt. The mutant strain showed impaired intracellular multiplication and was strongly attenuated for virulence in mice. Here we present evidence that the GGT activity of F. tularensis allows utilization of glutathione (GSH, γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) and γ-glutamyl-cysteine dipeptide as cysteine sources to ensure intracellular growth. This is the first demonstration of the essential role of a nutrient acquisition system in the intracellular multiplication of F. tularensis. GSH is the most abundant source of cysteine in the host cytosol. Thus, the capacity this intracellular bacterial pathogen has evolved to utilize the available GSH, as a source of cysteine in the host cytosol, constitutes a paradigm of bacteria–host adaptation

    Overview of data-synthesis in systematic reviews of studies on outcome prediction models

    Get PDF
    Background: Many prognostic models have been developed. Different types of models, i.e. prognostic factor and outcome prediction studies, serve different purposes, which should be reflected in how the results are summarized in reviews. Therefore we set out to investigate how authors of reviews synthesize and report the results of primary outcome prediction studies. Methods: Outcome prediction reviews published in MEDLINE between October 2005 and March 2011 were eligible and 127 Systematic reviews with the aim to summarize outcome prediction studies written in English were identified for inclusion. Characteristics of the reviews and the primary studies that were included were independently assessed by 2 review authors, using standardized forms. Results: After consensus meetings a total of 50 systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria were included. The type of primary studies included (prognostic factor or outcome prediction) was unclear in two-thirds of the reviews. A minority of the reviews reported univariable or multivariable point estimates and measures of dispersion from the primary studies. Moreover, the variables considered for outcome prediction model development were often not reported, or were unclear. In most reviews there was no information about model performance. Quantitative analysis was performed in 10 reviews, and 49 reviews assessed the primary studies qualitatively. In both analyses types a range of different methods was used to present the results of the outcome prediction studies. Conclusions: Different methods are applied to synthesize primary study results but quantitative analysis is rarely performed. The description of its objectives and of the primary studies is suboptimal and performance parameters of the outcome prediction models are rarely mentioned. The poor reporting and the wide variety of data synthesis strategies are prone to influence the conclusions of outcome prediction reviews. Therefore, there is much room for improvement in reviews of outcome prediction studies. (aut.ref.

    TNF-dependent regulation and activation of innate immune cells are essential for host protection against cerebral tuberculosis

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) affects one third of the global population, and TB of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is the most severe form of tuberculosis which often associates with high mortality. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a critical role in the initial and long-term host immune protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) which involves the activation of innate immune cells and structure maintenance of granulomas. However, the contribution of TNF, in particular neuron-derived TNF, in the control of cerebral M. tuberculosis infection and its protective immune responses in the CNS were not clear. METHODS: We generated neuron-specific TNF-deficient (NsTNF / ) mice and compared outcomes of disease against TNF f/f control and global TNF / mice. Mycobacterial burden in brains, lungs and spleens were compared, and cerebral pathology and cellular contributions analysed by microscopy and flow cytometry after M. tuberculosis infection. Activation of innate immune cells was measured by flow cytometry and cell function assessed by cytokine and chemokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Intracerebral M. tuberculosis infection of TNF / mice rendered animals highly susceptible, accompanied by uncontrolled bacilli replication and eventual mortality. In contrast, NsTNF / mice were resistant to infection and presented with a phenotype similar to that in TNF f/f control mice. Impaired immunity in TNF / mice was associated with altered cytokine and chemokine synthesis in the brain and characterised by a reduced number of activated innate immune cells. Brain pathology reflected enhanced inflammation dominated by neutrophil influx. CONCLUSION: Our data show that neuron-derived TNF has a limited role in immune responses, but overall TNF production is necessary for protective immunity against CNS-TB

    Efficacy of Synaptic Inhibition Depends on Multiple, Dynamically Interacting Mechanisms Implicated in Chloride Homeostasis

    Get PDF
    Chloride homeostasis is a critical determinant of the strength and robustness of inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAARs). The impact of changes in steady state Cl− gradient is relatively straightforward to understand, but how dynamic interplay between Cl− influx, diffusion, extrusion and interaction with other ion species affects synaptic signaling remains uncertain. Here we used electrodiffusion modeling to investigate the nonlinear interactions between these processes. Results demonstrate that diffusion is crucial for redistributing intracellular Cl− load on a fast time scale, whereas Cl−extrusion controls steady state levels. Interaction between diffusion and extrusion can result in a somato-dendritic Cl− gradient even when KCC2 is distributed uniformly across the cell. Reducing KCC2 activity led to decreased efficacy of GABAAR-mediated inhibition, but increasing GABAAR input failed to fully compensate for this form of disinhibition because of activity-dependent accumulation of Cl−. Furthermore, if spiking persisted despite the presence of GABAAR input, Cl− accumulation became accelerated because of the large Cl− driving force that occurs during spikes. The resulting positive feedback loop caused catastrophic failure of inhibition. Simulations also revealed other feedback loops, such as competition between Cl− and pH regulation. Several model predictions were tested and confirmed by [Cl−]i imaging experiments. Our study has thus uncovered how Cl− regulation depends on a multiplicity of dynamically interacting mechanisms. Furthermore, the model revealed that enhancing KCC2 activity beyond normal levels did not negatively impact firing frequency or cause overt extracellular K− accumulation, demonstrating that enhancing KCC2 activity is a valid strategy for therapeutic intervention
    corecore