817 research outputs found

    Fuzzy Bayesian inference

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    Bayesian methods provide formalism for reasoning about partial beliefs under conditions of uncertainty. Given a set of exhaustive and mutually exclusive hypotheses, one can compute the probability of a hypothesis for a given evidence using the Bayesian inversion formula. In Bayesian's inference, the evidence could be a single atomic proposition or multi-valued one. For the multi-valued evidence, these values could be discrete, continuous, or fuzzy. For the continuous-valued evidence, the density functions used in the Bayesian inference are difficult to be determined in many practical situations. Complicated laboratory testing and advance statistical techniques are required to estimate the parameters of the assumed type of distribution. Using the proposed fuzzy Bayesian approach, a formulation is derived to estimate the density function from the conditional probabilities of the fuzzy-supported values. It avoids the complicated testing and analysis, and it does not require the assumption of a particular type of distribution. The estimated density function in our approach is proved to conform to two axioms in the theorem of probability. Example is provided in the paper.published_or_final_versio

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      Building Bridges: Contextualizing Worldviews Through Cultural Syndromes and the Importance of Expressing Metaphorical Perspective Vidya Ananthanarayanan; Norman Scott St. Clair (1) The Improvement of Online Arbitration Rules of Evidence in China ZHENG Xia (8) Reducing Public Speaking Anxiety for Native and Non-Native English Speakers: The Value of Systematic Desensitization, Cognitive Restructuring, and Skills Training Tony Docan-Morgan; Thomas Schmidt (16) Biomedical Patent Securitization in Taiwan WANG Mei-Hsin (20) Changes of Translation Definition and Turns of Translation Studies LONG Jixing (35) Sound Disappearance: The Phonological Idiosyncrasy of Elision in Iraqi Arabic Majid Abdulatif Ibrahim (44) System Guarantee for Social Equity in Today’s China MA Luyan; ZHU Xiaoning (50) A Comparative Perception of the Culturally Different Others: Stereotyped or Not PENG Shiyong (55) Discussion on International Internship and Intercultural Competence from a Perspective of Higher Educational Internationalization -- A Case Study of the Program Work and Travel USA ZHANG Xiaochi (62) Intercultural Approaches to the Cultural Content of Indonesia’s High School ELT Textbooks Muhammad Iwan Munandar; Imaratul Ulwiyah (67) Discursive Metaphors Analysis: The Love Metaphor of Plant in Chinese Love Poetry ZHANG Yangyang (74) Development of Cross-Strait Relations from Building the Peace Agreement LU Jifeng; LIAN Furong (79) The Three Sisters: Chekhov’s Idea into Cultural Conflict Between the Attitudes and Aspirations Ali Reza Bonyadi (84) Construction of Soft Power of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises LI Hongyu; LIU Meiyue; ZHAO Jiayi (88) Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance CHEN Xihong (93) Analysis of the Diffusion Process of Buddhist Vocabulary from Memoirs of Eminent Monks HUA Zhenhong (97) Affect Factor Analysis of the Chinese Government Administrative Costs -- Empirical Analysis Based on the Data from 1978 to 2010 CHENG Lijuan; YAN Qiang (103) Planning Research on Chinese Culture English Virtual Community SHEN Yina; DU Hui; SHEN Juan (111) Comparative Analysis on Constitutional Supervision Modes WANG Wenjing; WANG Xiaorui (115) Investigation on the Power Source of Public Participation in Environmental Issues in China TANG Meng; SONG Siwei (119) How to Strengthen the Patriotism Education of College Students During the New Period WEN Nuan; GUO Xin (123) Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in the Development and Utilization of the Dissertation Process ZHU Yujing (127

    Selective Stimulability in the Speech and Language Assessment of Bilingual Children with Selective Mutism

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    English Language Learners (ELLs) with Selective Mutism (SM) mirror their typically developing, bilingual peers who are going through the silent period. The silent period is a normal phenomenon characterized by decreased expressive language and a general lack of communication that is temporary. Understanding second language acquisition and differentiating SM from the silent period, however, is critical to reduce over- and under-identification of children for services. Whereas bilingual children with SM do not speak in either of their languages, bilingual children in the silent period are only silent in their second language. Although limited information exists regarding assessment and treatment for SM in ELLs, general assessment and intervention strategies are available. The notion of selective stimulability (how stimulable a child with SM is for expressive communication) may be used in assessment in order to encourage children with SM to communicate expressively when using speech and language protocols and for determining prognosis for treatment. Guidelines for differential diagnosis of SM and the silent period are offered in this paper, including a case example of the use of selective stimulability in a speech-language assessment of a Spanish-speaking child. Moreover, additional information related to the assessment process and implications for intervention are provided

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