1,356 research outputs found

    The Power of LOCCq State Transformations

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    Reversible state transformations under entanglement non-increasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end \cite{BPRST01} have defined more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis). In this paper we show that {\em LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations} for multipartite pure states. We first generalize the concept of entanglement gambling from two parties to multiple parties: any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an EPR pair shared by some pair of parties and that any irreducible mm (m≥2)(m\ge 2) party pure state can be used to create any other state (pure or mixed), using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We then use this tool to prove the result. We mention some applications of multipartite entanglement gambling to multipartite distillability and to characterizations of multipartite minimal entanglement generating sets. Finally we discuss generalizations of this result to mixed states by defining the class of {\em cat distillable states}

    A Measure of Stregth of an Unextendible Product Basis

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    A notion of strength of an unextendible product basis is introduced and a quantitative measure for it is suggested with a view to providing an indirect measure for the bound entanglement of formation of the bound entangled mixed state associated with an unextendible product basis.Comment: 4 pages, Latex, 1 figure, remarks, criticisms welcom

    The Nature and Location of Quantum Information

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    Quantum information is defined by applying the concepts of ordinary (Shannon) information theory to a quantum sample space consisting of a single framework or consistent family. A classical analogy for a spin-half particle and other arguments show that the infinite amount of information needed to specify a precise vector in its Hilbert space is not a measure of the information carried by a quantum entity with a dd-dimensional Hilbert space; the latter is, instead, bounded by log d bits (1 bit per qubit). The two bits of information transmitted in dense coding are located not in one but in the correlation between two qubits, consistent with this bound. A quantum channel can be thought of as a "structure" or collection of frameworks, and the physical location of the information in the individual frameworks can be used to identify the location of the channel. Analysis of a quantum circuit used as a model of teleportation shows that the location of the channel depends upon which structure is employed; for ordinary teleportation it is not (contrary to Deutsch and Hayden) present in the two bits resulting from the Bell-basis measurement, but in correlations of these with a distant qubit. In neither teleportation nor dense coding does information travel backwards in time, nor is it transmitted by nonlocal (superluminal) influences. It is (tentatively) proposed that all aspects of quantum information can in principle be understood in terms of the (basically classical) behavior of information in a particular framework, along with the framework dependence of this information.Comment: Latex 29 pages, uses PSTricks for figure

    Quantum Communication Protocol Employing Weak Measurements

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    We propose a communication protocol exploiting correlations between two events with a definite time-ordering: a) the outcome of a {\em weak measurement} on a spin, and b) the outcome of a subsequent ordinary measurement on the spin. In our protocol, Alice, first generates a "code" by performing weak measurements on a sample of N spins. The sample is sent to Bob, who later performs a post-selection by measuring the spin along either of two certain directions. The results of the post-selection define the "key', which he then broadcasts publicly. Using both her previously generated code and this key, Alice is able to infer the {\em direction} chosen by Bob in the post-selection. Alternatively, if Alice broadcasts publicly her code, Bob is able to infer from the code and the key the direction chosen by Alice for her weak measurement. Two possible experimental realizations of the protocols are briefly mentioned.Comment: 5 pages, Revtex, 1 figure. A second protocol is added, where by a similar set of weak measurement Alice can send, instead of receiving, a message to Bob. The security question for the latter protocol is discusse

    New classes of n-copy undistillable quantum states with negative partial transposition

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    The discovery of entangled quantum states from which one cannot distill pure entanglement constitutes a fundamental recent advance in the field of quantum information. Such bipartite bound-entangled (BE) quantum states \emph{could} fall into two distinct categories: (1) Inseparable states with positive partial transposition (PPT), and (2) States with negative partial transposition (NPT). While the existence of PPT BE states has been confirmed, \emph{only one} class of \emph{conjectured} NPT BE states has been discovered so far. We provide explicit constructions of a variety of multi-copy undistillable NPT states, and conjecture that they constitute families of NPT BE states. For example, we show that for every pure state of Schmidt rank greater than or equal to three, one can construct n-copy undistillable NPT states, for any n≥1n\geq1. The abundance of such conjectured NPT BE states, we believe, considerably strengthens the notion that being NPT is only a necessary condition for a state to be distillable.Comment: Latex, 10 page

    Entanglement required in achieving entanglement-assisted channel capacities

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    Entanglement shared between the two ends of a quantum communication channel has been shown to be a useful resource in increasing both the quantum and classical capacities for these channels. The entanglement-assisted capacities were derived assuming an unlimited amount of shared entanglement per channel use. In this paper, bounds are derived on the minimum amount of entanglement required per use of a channel, in order to asymptotically achieve the capacity. This is achieved by introducing a class of entanglement-assisted quantum codes. Codes for classes of qubit channels are shown to achieve the quantum entanglement-assisted channel capacity when an amount of shared entanglement per channel given by, E = 1 - Q_E, is provided. It is also shown that for very noisy channels, as the capacities become small, the amount of required entanglement converges for the classical and quantum capacities.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, RevTex

    Quantum identification system

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    A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are ``refuelled'' from a shared provably secret key transferred through the quantum channel. Two identification protocols are devised. The first protocol can be applied when legitimate users have an unjammable public channel at their disposal. The deception probability is derived for the case of a noisy quantum channel. The second protocol employs unconditionally secure authentication of information sent over the public channel, and thus it can be applied even in the case when an adversary is allowed to modify public communications. An experimental realization of a quantum identification system is described.Comment: RevTeX, 4 postscript figures, 9 pages, submitted to Physical Review

    Activating bound entanglement in multi-particle systems

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    We analyze the existence of activable bound entangled states in multi-particle systems. We first give a series of examples which illustrate some different ways in which bound entangled states can be activated by letting some of the parties to share maximally entangled states. Then, we derive necessary conditions for a state to be distillable as well as to be activable. These conditions turn out to be also sufficient for a certain family of multi-qubit states. We use these results to explicitely to construct states displaying novel properties related to bound entanglement and its activation.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figure

    Entanglement sharing among qudits

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    Consider a system consisting of n d-dimensional quantum particles (qudits), and suppose that we want to optimize the entanglement between each pair. One can ask the following basic question regarding the sharing of entanglement: what is the largest possible value Emax(n,d) of the minimum entanglement between any two particles in the system? (Here we take the entanglement of formation as our measure of entanglement.) For n=3 and d=2, that is, for a system of three qubits, the answer is known: Emax(3,2) = 0.550. In this paper we consider first a system of d qudits and show that Emax(d,d) is greater than or equal to 1. We then consider a system of three particles, with three different values of d. Our results for the three-particle case suggest that as the dimension d increases, the particles can share a greater fraction of their entanglement capacity.Comment: 4 pages; v2 contains a new result for 3 qudits with d=

    A Necessary And Sufficient Condition of Distillability with unite fidelity from Finite Copies of a Mixed State: The Most Efficient Purification Protocol

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    It is well known that any entangled mixed state in 2⊗22\otimes 2 systems can be purified via infinite copies of the mixed state. But can one distill a pure maximally entangled state from finite copies of a mixed state in any bipartite system by local operation and classical communication? This is more meaningful in practical application. We give a necessary and sufficient condition of this distillability. This condition can be expressed as: there exists distillable-subspaces. According to this condition, one can judge whether a mixed state is distillable or not easily. We also analyze some properties of distillable-subspaces, and discuss the most efficient purification protocols. Finally, we discuss the distillable enanglement of two-quibt system for the case of finite copies.Comment: a revised versio
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