5,821 research outputs found

    Lepton Mixing from Delta (3 n^2) and Delta (6 n^2) and CP

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    We perform a detailed study of lepton mixing patterns arising from a scenario with three Majorana neutrinos in which a discrete flavor group Gf=Delta (3 n^2) or Gf=Delta(6 n^2) and a CP symmetry are broken to residual symmetries Ge=Z3 and Gnu=Z2 x CP in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors, respectively. While we consider all possible Z3 and Z2 generating elements, we focus on a certain set of CP transformations. The resulting lepton mixing depends on group theoretical indices and one continuous parameter. In order to study the mixing patterns comprehensively for all admitted Ge and Gnu, it is sufficient to discuss only three types of combinations. One of them requires as flavor group Delta (6 n^2). Two types of combinations lead to mixing patterns with a trimaximal column, while the third one allows for a much richer structure. For the first type of combinations the Dirac as well as one Majorana phase are trivial, whereas the other two ones predict in general all CP phases to be non-trivial and also non-maximal. Already for small values of the index n of the group, n <= 11, experimental data on lepton mixing can be accommodated well for particular choices of the parameters of the theory. We also comment on the relation of the used CP transformations to the automorphisms of Delta (3 n^2) and Delta (6 n^2).Comment: 60 pages, 12 tables and 10 figures. v2: typos corrected, references updated, some minor improvement of the text, matches version accepted for publication in Nuclear Physics

    Performance of a large limited streamer tube cell in drift mode

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    The performance of a large (3x3 cm2cm^2) streamer tube cell in drift mode is shown. The detector space resolution has been studied using cosmic muons crossing an high precision silicon telescope. The experimental results are compared with a GARFIELD simulation.Comment: 18 pages, 7 figures. Accepted by Nucl. Instr. and Methods

    Polyaniline/TiO2 composites: green photocatalysic synthesis and application in wastewater remediation

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    In recent years, polyaniline (PANI) composites and nanocomposites with metal and metal-oxide materials have received growing attention for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical applications (Gu 2013). Among them, PANI/TiO2 composites are probably the most interesting systems due to synergistic effects between the conductive polymer and the oxide photocatalyst in terms of photogenerated charge separation and photocatalytic efficiency (Bae 2011). Moreover, polyaniline has been reported to possess favourable sorption properties, which can be exploited for pollutant remediation (Alcaraz-Espinoza 2015, Janaki 2012). PANI/TiO2 composites are thus promising candidates for wastewater treatment combining different pollutant remediation approaches. Polyaniline is classically synthesised via oxidative polymerization (Tran 2011), which involves noxious reagents (aniline and peroxydisulfates) and leads to toxic and carcinogenic byproducts (such as benzidine and trans-azobenzidine). In recent years, greener alternatives have been reported, such as a synthetic process starting from aniline dimer ((4-aminophenil)aniline) and using Fe3+ as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidant (Della Pina 2018). Unfortunately, this alternative procedure does not offer any control over the polymer morphology, leading to compact materials with low surface area and, as a consequence, poor dye-sorption capability. Very recently, we proposed a new photocatalytically induced green synthesis leading to stable polyaniline/TiO2 composites with porous morphology, wide surface area, high crystallinity and, most important, excellent dye removal performance and reusability (Cionti 2018). The reaction is carried out in two steps: at first, the aniline dimer is dissolved in a HCl aqueous solution and TiO2 is added while starting UV irradiation. In the second step, H2O2 is added in the dark, leading to the final product. In this work, we shed light on the photocatalytic nature of the synthetic mechanism, highlighting the different roles of TiO2 and of H2O2 on the composite structural and morphological features as well as on the composite performance for pollutant abatement. The reaction mechanism was investigated by a combination of spectrometric techniques, radical scavenger tests, and surface characterizations (Fig.1). By sampling the reaction mixture at different irradiation times, we demonstrated that under UV irradiation the growth of the oligomers occurs at the TiO2 particle surfaces. The same experiment carried out without UV irradiation showed the intrinsic photocatalytic nature of the process: in the dark, only short oligomers without appropriate chain conjugation were produced. However, even after prolonged UV irradiation, the final green product could be obtained only upon addition of H2O2, showing that, while oligomer formation is initiated by radicals produced by TiO2 photocatalysis, small amounts of an oxidant (H2O2) are still needed for the polymer chain growth. The role of the H2O2 amount proved to be especially crucial with respect to the composite properties. Increasing the H2O2 amount together with that of TiO2 led to composites with low surface area and reduced dye removal capability (Fig.2 a) due to a faster polymerization step. On the other hand, when only the photocatalyst amount was increased, neither the product morphology, nor its dye-removal ability were affected. This enables to increase the TiO2 content within the composite with the aim of enhancing its photocatalytic performance. In this respect, the composite stability was tested in water under prolonged UV irradiation, showing that the material optical, structural and morphological properties remained unchanged. The composite was tested towards the removal of anionic azo dyes in aqueous solution, evaluating the effect of the matrix composition and the composite reusability (Fig.2 b), showing promising results

    Triply green polyaniline: UV irradiation-induced synthesis of highly porous PANI/TiO2 composite and its application in dye removal

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    An environmentally benign procedure for the preparation of polyaniline/TiO2 composites is presented. The UV irradiation-induced synthesis leads to materials with good crystallinity and tailored morphology, showing promising sorption and recycle properties in dye removal tests. A reaction mechanism is proposed on the basis of LC-MS and FT-IR investigations

    Photocatalytic and oxidative synthetic pathways for highly efficient PANI-TIO2 nanocomposites as organic and inorganic pollutant sorbents

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    Polyaniline (PANI)-materials have recently been proposed for environmental remediation applications thanks to PANI stability and sorption properties. As an alternative to conventional PANI oxidative syntheses, which involve toxic carcinogenic compounds, an eco-friendly procedure was here adopted starting from benign reactants (aniline-dimer and H2O2) and initiated by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated TiO2. To unlock the full potential of this procedure, we investigated the roles of TiO2 and H2O2 in the nanocomposites synthesis, with the aim of tailoring the properties of the final material to the desired application. The nanocomposites prepared by varying the TiO2:H2O2:aniline-dimer molar ratios were characterized for their thermal, optical, morphological, structural and surface properties. The reaction mechanism was investigated via mass analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nanocomposites were tested on both methyl orange and hexavalent chromium removal. A fast dye-sorption was achieved also in the presence of interferents and the recovery of the dye was obtained upon eco-friendly conditions. An efficient Cr(VI) abatement was obtained also after consecutive tests and without any regeneration treatment. The fine understanding of the reaction mechanism allowed us to interpret the pollutant-removal performances of the different materials, leading to tailored nanocomposites in terms of maximum sorption and reduction capability upon consecutive tests even in simulated drinking water

    Implementation of the Hierarchical Reference Theory for simple one-component fluids

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    Combining renormalization group theoretical ideas with the integral equation approach to fluid structure and thermodynamics, the Hierarchical Reference Theory is known to be successful even in the vicinity of the critical point and for sub-critical temperatures. We here present a software package independent of earlier programs for the application of this theory to simple fluids composed of particles interacting via spherically symmetrical pair potentials, restricting ourselves to hard sphere reference systems. Using the hard-core Yukawa potential with z=1.8/sigma for illustration, we discuss our implementation and the results it yields, paying special attention to the core condition and emphasizing the decoupling assumption's role.Comment: RevTeX, 16 pages, 2 figures. Minor changes, published versio

    Ultrasound-enhanced photodegradation of Diclofenac Na

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    Diclofenac sodium, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an emerging water pollutant that cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation (sonolysis) and heterogeneous photocatalysis are highly promising for the degradation and mineralization of refractory drugs [1,2]. Nevertheless, the use of nanoparticles as photocatalyst is not suitable in real applications for environmental and health hazard [3] as well as for the complex photocatalyst retrieval at the end of the process. For this reasons, we studied the photocatalyzed degradation of Diclofenac Na using micrometric titanium dioxide photocatalyst (Kronos 1077, 0.1 g/L), both bare and decorated with silver. Moreover, the synergic effect of pulsed ultrasound was tested. Initial concentrations of diclofenac sodium in the 25-50 ppm range were tested. Tests were performed in a batch jacketed reactor. A UVA lamp set sideway irradiated the solution with a power of 30 W/m2 and an ultrasonic horn (20 kHz) sonicated the solution. HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS determined Diclofenac degradation and the main byproducts. A total organic carbon analyzer (TOC, Shimadzu) calculated the fraction of Diclofenac mineralized. An example of photodegradation run is reported in figure. A positive synergy coupling ultrasounds with photocatalysis is confirmed, mainly with the use of Ag nanoparticles-TiO2. We observed both a faster molecule degradation and its complete mineralization

    Infinite compressibility states in the Hierarchical Reference Theory of fluids. II. Numerical evidence

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    Continuing our investigation into the Hierarchical Reference Theory of fluids for thermodynamic states of infinite isothermal compressibility kappa[T] we now turn to the available numerical evidence to elucidate the character of the partial differential equation: Of the three scenarios identified previously, only the assumption of the equations turning stiff when building up the divergence of kappa[T] allows for a satisfactory interpretation of the data. In addition to the asymptotic regime where the arguments of part I (cond-mat/0308467) directly apply, a similar mechanism is identified that gives rise to transient stiffness at intermediate cutoff for low enough temperature. Heuristic arguments point to a connection between the form of the Fourier transform of the perturbational part of the interaction potential and the cutoff where finite difference approximations of the differential equation cease to be applicable, and they highlight the rather special standing of the hard-core Yukawa potential as regards the severity of the computational difficulties.Comment: J. Stat. Phys., in press. Minor changes to match published versio

    The bovine acute phase protein &#945;1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) can disrupt Staphylococcus aureus biofilm

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    Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-related infections are of clinical concern due to the capability of bacterial colonies to adapt to a hostile environment. The present study investigated the capability of the acute phase protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) to a) disrupt already established S. aureus biofilm and b) interfere with the biofilm de novo production by using Microtiter Plate assay (MtP) on field strains isolated from infected quarters by assessing. The present study also investigated whether AGP could interfere with the expression of bacterial genes related to biofilm formation (icaA, icaD, icaB, and icaC) and adhesive virulence determinants (fnbA, fnbB, clfA, clfB, fib, ebps, eno) by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results provided the evidence that AGP could disrupt the biofilm structure only when it was already developed, but could not prevent the de novo biofilm formation. Moreover, AGP could interfere with the expression levels of genes involved in biofilm formation in a dose- and strain-dependent way, by upregulating, or downregulating, icaABC genes and fnbB, respectively. The results presented in this study provide new insights about the direct antibacterial activity of AGP in bovine milk. It remains to be demonstrated the molecular bases of AGP mechanism of action, in particular for what concerns the scarce capability to interact with the de novo formation of biofilm
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