566 research outputs found

    Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation for x-ray phase imaging system employing attenuation masks

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    OBJECTIVE: Attenuation masks can be used in x-ray imaging systems to increase their inherent spatial resolution and/or make them sensitive to phase effects, a typical example being Edge Illumination X-ray phase contrast imaging (EI-XPCI). This work investigates the performance of a mask-based system such as EI-XPCI in terms of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), in the absence of phase effects. APPROACH: Pre-sampled MTF measurements, using an edge, were performed on the same system implemented without masks, with non-skipped masks and finally with skipped masks (i.e., masks in which apertures illuminate every other pixel row/column). Results are compared to simulations and finally images of a resolution bar pattern acquired with all the above setups are presented. MAIN RESULTS: Compared to the detector's inherent MTF, the non-skipped mask setup provides improved MTF results. In comparison to an ideal case where signal spill-out into neighbouring pixels is negligible, this improvement takes place only at specific frequencies of the MTF, dictated by the spatial repetition of the spill-out signal. This is limited with skipped masks, which indeed provide further MTF improvements over a larger frequency range. Experimental MTF measurements are supported through simulation and resolution bar pattern images. SIGNIFICANCE: This work has quantified the improvement in MTF due to the use of attenuation masks and lays the foundation for how acceptance and routine quality control tests will have to be modified when systems using masks are introduced in clinical practice and how MTF results will compare to those of conventional imaging systems

    Evaluation of neutron induced reaction cross sections in the resolved and unresolved resonance region at EC-JRC-IRMM

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    Recent efforts made at the EC-JRC-IRMM to produce evaluated cross section data files for neutron induced reactions are described as well as the methodology applied in both the resolved and unresolved resonance. For the resolved resonance region the paper focuses on a recent evaluation of isotopes present in natural cadmium. For the unresolved resonance region results for gold are presented.JRC.D.4-Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguard

    Tumor type M2-pyruvate-kinase levels in pleural fluid versus plasma in cancer patients: a further tool to define the need for invasive procedures

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    Pleural effusion is a common diagnostic problem and a challenge to the thoracic surgeon. The analysis of serum and body fluids for tumor markers is an established diagnostic procedure. Among various markers, tumors are linked to the overexpression of a glycolytic isoenzyme, M2-pyruvate-kinase (M2-PK). This preliminary study evaluated this enzyme as a tumor marker to differentiate malignant from benign pleural effusion

    Synthesis of Ternary Borocarbonitrides by High Temperature Pyrolysis of Ethane 1,2-Diamineborane

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    Ethane 1,2-diamineborane (EDAB) is an alkyl-containing amine-borane adduct with improved hydrogen desorption properties as compared to ammonia borane. In this work, it is reported the high temperature thermolytic decomposition of EDAB. Thermolysis of EDAB has been investigated by concomitant thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry experiments. EDAB shows up to four H2 desorption events below 1000 °C. Small fractions of CH4, C2H4 and CO/CO2 are also observed at moderate-high temperatures. The solid-state thermolysis product has been characterized by means of different structural and chemical methods, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Elemental analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The obtained results indicate the formation of a ternary borocarbonitride compound with a poorly-crystalline graphitic-like structure. By contrast, XPS measurements show that the surface is rich in carbon and nitrogen oxides, which is quite different to the bulk of the materialSome authors (Fabrice Leardini, Lorenzo Massimi, Maria Grazia Betti and Carlo Mariani) also thank Sapienza Università di Roma for financial support under “Progetti di Ateneo”, and the Italian Ministry of Education and Research (MIUR) for the PRIN grant “GRAF” n. 20105ZZTS

    Measurement of the 242Pu(n,f) cross section at n_TOF

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    Knowledge of neutron cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems. The 242Pu(n,f) cross sections were measured at the CERN n-TOF facility, taking advantage of the wide energy range (from thermal to GeV) and the high instantaneous flux of the neutron beam. In this work, preliminary results are presented along with a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014

    Quantitative characterization of amyloid deposits in murine models of alzheimer disease by phase-contrast x-ray imaging

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    Alzheimer's is a neurodegenerative disease that is the most common form of dementia, but there is still no definitive cure for this disease. The noninvasive X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography (XPCT) imaging technique was used to study brain tissues in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, AP-PS1 and APP23. The XPCT technique enabled high-resolution imaging of brain tissues, distinguishing between different brain structures, such as amyloid deposits and neuronal cells. In addition, the XPCT technique provided detailed information on the distribution and morphology of amyloid deposits in AP-PS1 and APP23 mice putting in evidence the differences between these two models. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique in supporting Alzheimer's studies and evaluating new therapeutic strategies.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figure

    What is the prevalence of low health literacy in European Union member states? A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Many studies have shown that low health literacy (HL) is associated with several adverse outcomes. In this study, we systematically reviewed the prevalence of low HL in Europe. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched. Cross-sectional studies conducted in the European Union (EU), published from 2000, investigating the prevalence of low HL in adults using a reliable tool, were included. Quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Inverse-variance random effects methods were used to produce pooled prevalence estimates. A meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the association between low HL and the characteristics of the studies. Results: The pooled prevalence of low HL ranged from of 27% (95% CI: 18–38%) to 48% (95% CI: 41–55%), depending on the literacy assessment method applied. Southern, Western, and Eastern EU countries had lower HL compared to northern Europe (β: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.40–1.35; β: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.25–0.93; and β: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.06–1.37, respectively). The assessment method significantly influenced the pooled estimate: compared to word recognition items, using self-reported comprehensions items (β: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.15–1.08), reading or numeracy comprehensions items (β: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.24–1.31), or a mixed method (β: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.01–1.33) found higher rates of low HL. Refugees had the lowest HL (β: 1.59, 95% CI: 0.26–2.92). Finally, lower quality studies reported higher rates of low HL (β: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.06–1.07). Discussion: We found that low HL is a public health challenge throughout Europe, where one in every three to almost one in every two Europeans may not be able to understand essential health-related material. Additional research is needed to investigate the underlying causes and to develop remedies
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