251 research outputs found

    Heavy elements nucleosynthesis on accreting white dwarfs: building seeds for the p-process

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    The origin of the proton-rich trans-iron isotopes in the Solar system is still uncertain. Single-degenerate thermonuclear supernovae (SNIa) with n-capture nucleosynthesis seeds assembled in the external layers of the progenitor's rapidly accreting white dwarf (RAWD) phase may produce these isotopes. We calculate the stellar structure of the accretion phase of five white dwarf (WD) models with initial masses >= 0.85 M-circle dot using the stellar code MESA The near-surface layers of the 1, 1.26, 1.32 and 1.38 M-circle dot models are most representative of the regions in which the bulk of the p nuclei are produced during SNIa explosions, and for these models we also calculate the neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the external layers. Contrary to previous RAWD models at lower mass, we find that the H-shell flashes are the main site of n-capture nucleosynthesis. We find high neutron densities up to several 10(15) cm(-3) in the most massive WDs. Through the recurrence of the H-shell flashes these intermediate neutron densities can be sustained effectively for a long time leading to high-neutron exposures with a strong production up to Pb. Both the neutron density and the neutron exposure increase with increasing the mass of the accreting WD. Finally, the SNIa nucleosynthesis is calculated using the obtained abundances as seeds. We obtain solar to supersolar abundances for p-nuclei with A > 96. Our models show that SNIa are a viable p-process production site

    Decay of the key 92-keV resonance in the 25Mg(p,γ) reaction to the ground and isomeric states of the cosmic γ-ray emitter 26Al

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    The 92-keV resonance in the 25Mg(p,γ)26Al reaction plays a key role in the production of 26Al at astrophysical burning temperatures of ≈100 MK in the Mg-Al cycle. However, the state can decay to feed either the ground, 26gAl, or isomeric state, 26mAl. It is the ground state that is critical as the source of cosmic γ rays. It is therefore important to precisely determine the ground-state branching fraction f0 of this resonance. Here we report on the identification of four γ-ray transitions from the 92-keV resonance, and determine the spin of the state and its ground-state branching fraction f0=0.52(2)stat(6)syst. The f0 value is the most precise reported to date, and at the lower end of the range of previously adopted values, implying a lower production rate of 26gAl and its cosmic 1809-keV γ rays.peerReviewe

    NuGrid stellar data set - III. Updated low-mass AGB models and s-process nucleosynthesis with metallicities Z = 0.01, Z = 0.02, and Z = 0.03

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    © 2019 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. The production of the neutron-capture isotopes beyond iron that we observe today in the Solar system is the result of the combined contribution of the r-process, the s-process, and possibly the i-process. Low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) (1.5 10 M☉) stars have been identified as the main site of the s-process. In this work we consider the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass AGB stars. We provide an update of the NuGrid Set models, adopting the same general physics assumptions but using an updated convective-boundary-mixing model accounting for the contribution from internal gravity waves. The combined data set includes the initial masses MZAMS/M☉ = 2, 3 for Z = 0.03, 0.02, 0.01. These new models are computed with the MESA stellar code and the evolution is followed up to the end of the AGB phase. The nucleosynthesis was calculated for all isotopes in post-processing with the NuGrid mppnp code. The convective-boundary-mixing model leads to the formation of a 13C-pocket three times wider compared to the one obtained in the previous set of models, bringing the simulation results now in closer agreement with observations. Using these new models, we discuss the potential impact of other processes inducing mixing, like rotation, adopting parametric models compatible with theory and observations. Complete yield data tables, derived data products, and online analytic data access are provided

    Stellar and thermal neutron capture cross section of ⁹Be

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    The neutron capture cross section of ⁹Be for stellar energies was measured via the activation technique using the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator. To characterize the energy region of interest for astrophysical applications, activations were performed in a quasistellar neutron spectrum of kT = 25 keV and for a spectrum at En = 473 ± 53 keV. Despite the very small cross section, the method used provided the required sensitivity for obtaining fairly accurate results of 10.4 ± 0.6 and 8.4 ± 1.0 μb, respectively. With these data it was possible to constrain the cross section shape up to the first resonances at 622 and 812 keV, thus allowing for the determination of Maxwellian-averaged cross sections at thermal energies between kT = 5 and 100 keV. In addition, we report a new experimental cross section value at thermal energy of σth = 8.31 ± 0.52 mb.This work was partly funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Projects No. P20434 and No. I428, and by the Australian Research Council, Projects No. DP140100136 and No. DP180100496

    179^{179}Ta(n, γ) cross-section measurement and the astrophysical origin of the 180^{180}Ta isotope

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    180m^{180m}Ta is nature\u27s rarest (quasi) stable isotope and its astrophysical origin is an open question. A possible production site of this isotope is the slow neutron capture process in asymptotic giant branch stars, where it can be produced via neutron capture reactions on unstable 179^{179}Ta. We report a new measurement of the 179^{179}Ta(n,γ) 180^{180}Ta cross section at thermal-neutron energies via the activation technique. Our results for the thermal and resonance-integral cross sections are 952±57 and 2013±148 b, respectively. The thermal cross section is in good agreement with the only previous measurement [Phys. Rev. C 60, 025802 (1999)], while the resonance integral is different by a factor of ≈1.7. While neutron energies in this work are smaller than the energies in a stellar environment, our results may lead to improvements in theoretical predictions of the stellar cross section

    Measurement of the 70Ge(n,γ) cross section up to 300 keV at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    Neutron capture data on intermediate mass nuclei are of key importance to nucleosynthesis in the weak component of the slow neutron capture processes, which occurs in massive stars. The (n,γ) cross section on 70Ge, which is mainly produced in the s process, was measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were determined up to 40 keV neutron energy and average cross sections up to 300 keV. Stellar cross sections were calculated from kT =5 keV tokT =100 keV and are in very good agreement with a previous measurement by Walter and Beer (1985) and recent evaluations. Average cross sectionsareinagreementwithWalterandBeer(1985)overmostoftheneutronenergyrangecovered,whilethey aresystematicallysmallerforneutronenergiesabove150keV.Wehavecalculatedisotopicabundancesproduced in s-process environments in a 25 solar mass star for two initial metallicities (below solar and close to solar). While the low metallicity model reproduces best the solar system germanium isotopic abundances, the close to solar model shows a good global match to solar system abundances in the range of mass numbers A=60–80.Austrian Science Fund J3503Adolf Messer Foundation ST/M006085/1European Research Council ERC2015-StGCroatian Science Foundation IP-2018-01-857

    Radiative neutron capture cross-section measurement of ge isotopes at n_TOF CERN facility and its importance for stellar nucleosynthesis

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    This manuscript summarizes the results of radiative neutron capture cross-section measurements on two stable germanium isotopes, 70Ge and 73Ge. Experiments were performed at the n_TOF facility at CERN via the time-of-flight technique, over a wide neutron energy range, for all stable germanium isotopes (70,72,73,74, and 76). Results for 70Ge [Phys. Rev. C 100, 045804 (2019)] and 73Ge [Phys. Lett. B 790, 458 (2019)] are already published. In the field of nuclear structure, such measurements allow to study excited levels close to the neutron binding energy and to obtain information on nuclear properties. In stellar nucleosynthesis research, neutron induced reactions on germanium are of importance for nucleosynthesis in the weak component of the slow neutron capture processes. © 2021 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Austrian Science Fund FWFUK Science and Facilities Council ST/M006085/1European Research Council (ERC) ERC-2015-StG No. 677497National Science Center. Poland UMO2016/22/M/ST2/00183MSMT of the Czech Republic IP-2018-01-8570Croatian Science Foundation IP-2018-01-857

    Neutron activation of 69^{69}Ga and 71^{71}Ga at kBT≈25 keV

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    Background: About 50% of heavy elements are produced by the slow neutron capture process (s process) in stars. The element gallium is mostly produced during the weak s process in massive stars. Purpose: Our activation at kB_{B}T≈25 keV is the first experiment in a series of activation and time-of-flight measurements on 69^{69}Ga and 71^{71}Ga relevant for astrophysics. Methods: We activated 69^{69}Ga and 71^{71}Ga with a neutron distribution that corresponds to a quasistellar distribution with kB_{B}T=25 keV at the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Geel, Belgium. Protons were provided by an electrostatic Van de Graaff accelerator to produce neutrons via the reaction 7^{7}Li(p,n). The produced activity was measured via the γ emission by the decaying product nuclei by high-purity germanium detectors. Results: We provide spectrum-averaged cross sections (SACS) and ratios of the cross sections σGa_{Ga}Au_{Au} for the neutron spectrum of the activation. We obtain values of σ69Ga,SACS_{69Ga,SACS}=(186±12) mb and σ71GA,SACS_{71GA,SACS} = (112±7) mb, and cross section ratios of σ69Ga_{69Ga}Au_{Au}=0.29±0.02 and σ71Ga_{71Ga}Au_{Au} = 0.17±0.01. Conclusions: Our data disagree with the available evaluated data provided by KADoNiS v0.3, our cross-section ratio is about 20% higher for 69^{69}Ga and about 20% lower for 71^{71}Ga

    Approaching the Gamow Window with Stored Ions : Direct Measurement of Xe 124 (p,γ) in the ESR Storage Ring

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    © 2019 American Physical Society. All rights reserved.We report the first measurement of low-energy proton-capture cross sections of Xe124 in a heavy-ion storage ring. Xe12454+ ions of five different beam energies between 5.5 and 8 AMeV were stored to collide with a windowless hydrogen target. The Cs125 reaction products were directly detected. The interaction energies are located on the high energy tail of the Gamow window for hot, explosive scenarios such as supernovae and x-ray binaries. The results serve as an important test of predicted astrophysical reaction rates in this mass range. Good agreement in the prediction of the astrophysically important proton width at low energy is found, with only a 30% difference between measurement and theory. Larger deviations are found above the neutron emission threshold, where also neutron and γ widths significantly impact the cross sections. The newly established experimental method is a very powerful tool to investigate nuclear reactions on rare ion beams at low center-of-mass energies.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio
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