3,343 research outputs found

    How Correlations Influence Lasso Prediction

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    We study how correlations in the design matrix influence Lasso prediction. First, we argue that the higher the correlations are, the smaller the optimal tuning parameter is. This implies in particular that the standard tuning parameters, that do not depend on the design matrix, are not favorable. Furthermore, we argue that Lasso prediction works well for any degree of correlations if suitable tuning parameters are chosen. We study these two subjects theoretically as well as with simulations

    Refined a posteriori error estimation for classical and pressure-robust Stokes finite element methods

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    Recent works showed that pressure-robust modifications of mixed finite element methods for the Stokes equations outperform their standard versions in many cases. This is achieved by divergence-free reconstruction operators and results in pressure independent velocity error estimates which are robust with respect to small viscosities. In this paper we develop a posteriori error control which reflects this robustness. The main difficulty lies in the volume contribution of the standard residual-based approach that includes the L2L^2-norm of the right-hand side. However, the velocity is only steered by the divergence-free part of this source term. An efficient error estimator must approximate this divergence-free part in a proper manner, otherwise it can be dominated by the pressure error. To overcome this difficulty a novel approach is suggested that uses arguments from the stream function and vorticity formulation of the Navier--Stokes equations. The novel error estimators only take the curl\mathrm{curl} of the right-hand side into account and so lead to provably reliable, efficient and pressure-independent upper bounds in case of a pressure-robust method in particular in pressure-dominant situations. This is also confirmed by some numerical examples with the novel pressure-robust modifications of the Taylor--Hood and mini finite element methods

    Possible Reentrance of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in the Lowest Landau Level

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    In the framework of a recently developed model of interacting composite fermions, we calculate the energy of different solid and Laughlin-type liquid phases of spin-polarized composite fermions. The liquid phases have a lower energy than the competing solids around the electronic filling factors nu=4/11,6/17, and 4/19 and may thus be responsible for the fractional quantum Hall effect at nu=4/11. The alternation between solid and liquid phases when varying the magnetic field may lead to reentrance phenomena in analogy with the observed reentrant integral quantum Hall effect.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; revised version accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Let

    Second Generation of Composite Fermions and the Self-Similarity of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

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    A recently developed model of interacting composite fermions, is used to investigate different composite-fermion phases. Their interaction potential allows for the formation of both solid and new quantum-liquid phases, which are interpreted in terms of second-generation composite fermions and which may be responsible for the fractional quantum Hall states observed at unusual filling factors, such as nu=4/11. Projection of the composite-fermion dynamics to a single level, involved in the derivation of the Hamiltonian of interacting composite fermions, reveals the underlying self-similarity of the model.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure; to appear in "Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics (SemiMag-16)", only change with respect to v1: correction in authors line, no changes in manuscrip

    Quantum Phases in Partially Filled Landau Levels

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    We compare the energies of different electron solids, such as bubble crystals with triangular and square symmetry and stripe phases, to those of correlated quantum liquids in partially filled intermediate Landau levels. Multiple transitions between these phases when varying the filling of the top-most partially filled Landau level explain the observed reentrance of the integer quantum Hall effect. The phase transitions are identified as first-order. This leads to a variety of measurable phenomena such as the phase coexistence between a Wigner crystal and a two-electron bubble phase in a Landau-level filling-factor range 4.15<nu<4.264.15 < nu < 4.26, which has recently been observed in transport measurements under micro-wave irradiation.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures; to appear in "Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics (SemiMag-16)

    Magneto-Roton Modes of the Ultra Quantum Crystal: Numerical Study

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    The Field Induced Spin Density Wave phases observed in quasi-one-dimensional conductors of the Bechgaard salts family under magnetic field exhibit both Spin Density Wave order and a Quantized Hall Effect, which may exhibit sign reversals. The original nature of the condensed phases is evidenced by the collective mode spectrum. Besides the Goldstone modes, a quasi periodic structure of Magneto-Roton modes, predicted to exist for a monotonic sequence of Hall Quantum numbers, is confirmed, and a second mode is shown to exist within the single particle gap. We present numerical estimates of the Magneto-Roton mode energies in a generic case of the monotonic sequence. The mass anisotropy of the collective mode is calculated. We show how differently the MR spectrum evolves with magnetic field at low and high fields. The collective mode spectrum should have specific features, in the sign reversed "Ribault Phase", as compared to modes of the majority sign phases. We investigate numerically the collective mode in the Ribault Phase.Comment: this paper incorporates material contained in a previous cond-mat preprint cond-mat/9709210, but cannot be described as a replaced version, because it contains a significant amount of new material dealing with the instability line and with the topic of Ribault Phases. It contains 13 figures (.ps files

    Multiple sclerosis, the measurement of disability and access to clinical trial data

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    Background: Inferences about long-term effects of therapies in multiple sclerosis (MS) have been based on surrogate markers studied in short-term trials. Nevertheless, MS trials have been getting steadily shorter despite the lack of a consensus definition for the most important clinical outcome - unremitting progression of disability. Methods: We have examined widely used surrogate markers of disability progression in MS within a unique database of individual patient data from the placebo arms of 31 randomised clinical trials. Findings: Definitions of treatment failure used in secondary progressive MS trials include much change unrelated to the target of unremitting disability. In relapsing-remitting MS, disability progression by treatment failure definitions was no more likely than similarly defined improvement for these disability surrogates. Existing definitions of disease progression in relapsing-remitting trials encompass random variation, measurement error and remitting relapses and appear not to measure unremitting disability. Interpretation: Clinical surrogates of unremitting disability used in relapsing -remitting trials cannot be validated. Trials have been too short and/or degrees of disability change too small to evaluate unremitting disability outcomes. Important implications for trial design and reinterpretation of existing trial results have emerged long after regulatory approval and widespread use of therapies in MS, highlighting the necessity of having primary trial data in the public domain
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