2,611 research outputs found

    Performance of the readout system for MONOLITH

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    Abstract In this paper, we describe the performance of the readout system for MONOLITH developed at the LNGS. This system is based on the use of flat cables as readout elements, instead of the conventional copper strips. The advantages of flat cable strips are the good performance, the easy installation and the possibility to realize complex readout systems. The X -coordinate readout system (X-system) is composed by 15 m long, Flat Cable Strips (FCS). The distribution of the time difference between the streamer signals transmitted at both the ends of the X-system FCS has a sigma resolution of the order of 100 ps . This resolution allows the measurement of the particle direction by means of the time-of-flight technique and can be exploited to measure the Y -coordinate with a resolution in the order of 1 cm . The Y -coordinate system is composed by short FCS connected together by a flat cable acting as a bus line. It allows the installation of the electronics outside the apparatus minimizing the number of channels

    Primordial nucleosynthesis

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    Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of light nuclei in the early phases of the Universe. For this, precise knowledge of the cosmological parameters, such as the baryon density, as well as the cross section of the fusion reactions involved are needed. In general, the energies of interest for BBN are so low (E < 1MeV) that nuclear cross section measurements are practically unfeasible at the Earth’s surface. As of today, LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) has been the only facility in the world available to perform direct measurements of small cross section in a very low background radiation. Owing to the background suppression provided by about 1400 meters of rock at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy, and to the high current offered by the LUNA accelerator, it has been possible to investigate cross sections at energies of interest for Big Bang nucleosynthesis using protons, 3He and alpha particles as projectiles. The main reaction studied in the past at LUNA is the 2H(4He, (Formula presented.))6Li. Its cross section was measured directly, for the first time, in the BBN energy range. Other processes like 2H(p, (Formula presented.))3He , 3He(2H, p)4He and 3He(4He, (Formula presented.))7Be were also studied at LUNA, thus enabling to reduce the uncertainty on the overall reaction rate and consequently on the determination of primordial abundances. The improvements on BBN due to the LUNA experimental data will be discussed and a perspective of future measurements will be outlined. © 2016, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

    Effect of cytochalasin B on the induction of chromosome missegregation by colchicine at low concentrations in human lymphocytes

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    The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible interference of cytochalasin B (cyt B) with low concentration treatment with colchicine in the induction of chromosome/chromatid loss and micronuclei in human lymphocytes mitotically activated in vitro. Thus, cells from a single female donor were treated with colchicine (10 or 25 nM, from 24 h after PHA addition to fixation at 66 h) either in the presence or absence of cyt B. Single lagging chromosomes/chromatids were scored in bipolar ana-telophases and greater damage (disrupted and c-anaphases) was scored in cells at anaphase. Micronuclei were scored in the first 4000 nuclei observed in both cyt B-treated (in mononucleate and binucleate cells) and untreated cultures. With the same criterion, FISH analysis was performed on 2000 nuclei where chromosome 7 and 11 centromeric DNA probes were used in pairs. Our results showed that: (i) the frequency of laggards and of micronuclei increased with colchicine concentration but in the presence of cyt B there was a lower frequency of both (with a mean reduction of ~ 49%); (ii) FISH analysis showed a colchicine concentration-dependent increase in nuclei with three spots for chromosome 7; (iii) a colchicine concentration-dependent increase in tetraploid cells was observed. This increase was particularly remarkable (5-fold) in cells grown in the presence of cyt B compared with cyt B-untreated cells. The observed 'cyt B effects' can be explained if it is assumed that in cytokinesis-blocked cells there is a shorter distance between the poles. As a consequence: (i) laggards would be engulfed in the nearest daughter nucleus with a consequent lower induction of micronuclei; (ii) segregating sister chromatids in heavily impaired anaphases would not travel a sufficient distance to give rise to two daughter nuclei, leading to an increased frequency of polyploid nuclei

    A glass spark counter for high rate environments

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    The performance of a glass spark counter prototype, built with glass electrodes of about 1010 Ω cm volume resistivity, is described. The measure

    Indirect mitotic nondisjunction in Vicia faba and Chinese hamster cells

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    The hypothesis of indirect mitotic nondisjunction was tested in plant and mammalian cells. This hypothesis states that micronuclei derived from lagging chromosomes or chromatids are able to perform DNA synthesis and undergo mitotic condensation synchronously with main nuclei. Hence, as chromosomes, they can be moved to spindle poles together with the chromosomes of the main nuclei during mitosis. In that way chromosomes "lost" as micronuclei can be reincorporated in the main nuclei. In order to test this, both Vicia faba meristematic cells and cells of a Chinese hamster line (Cl-1) were treated with low doses of colchicine. Mitotic anomalies, micronuclei and cells with a polyploid or aneuploid karyotype were scored at different fixation times. A detailed analysis was performed on single chromosome misdistributions, as well as on micronuclei and cells with aneuploid karyotypes derived from single chromosome misdistributions. Indirect mitotic nondisjunction was shown to play a primary role in the origin of aneuploid karyotypes in Vicia faba, but not in Cl-1 cells

    Genotoxicity of DrinkingWater Disinfectants in Plant Bioassays

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    The genotoxicity of two widely used drinking water disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and a new disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA, CH3-CO-COOH), was evaluated in three short-term plant tests: (1) induction of anaphase chromosome aberrations in the root cells of Allium cepa, (2) micronucleus induction in the root cells of Vicia faba, and (3) micronucleus induction in Tradescantia pollen cells. The study was carried out in the laboratory by directly exposing the plants to several concentrations of the disinfectants in redistilled water at unadjusted (acid) and adjusted (neutral) pHs. Both 0.1 and 0.2 mg/l NaClO induced chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test at acid pH, but concentrations up to 0.5 mg/l of all the disinfectants were negative at neutral pH. Concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg/l NaClO, ClO2, and PAA induced micronuclei in Vicia faba at acid pH, while 1–2 mg/l NaClO and ClO2 and 0.5–2 mg/l PAA gave positive responses at neutral pH. Most of concentrations of ClO2 produced positive responses in the Tradescantia micronucleus test. In general, the highest levels of genotoxicity were observed under acid conditions; at acid pH, significant effects were induced by low concentrations of ClO2 and PAA. Since the test concentrations of disinfectants are typical of those encountered in the biocidal treatment of tap water and similar concentrations are consumed daily by a large number of people, the genotoxicity of these compounds may constitute a significant public health concern

    The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

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    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Finally, the expected physics performance of the detector is described; estimates rely on numerical simulations and the outcome of the tests described above.Comment: 6 pages, 10 figures, presented at the 2003 IEEE-NSS conference, Portland, OR, USA, October 20-24, 200

    Modulating effects of humic acids on genotoxicity induced by water disinfectants in Cyprinus carpio

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    The use of chlorinated disinfectants during drinking-water production has been shown to generate halogenated compounds as a result of interactions of humic acids with chlorine. Such chlorinated by-products have been shown to induce genotoxic effects and consumption of chlorinated drinking-water has been correlated with increased risk for cancer induction in human populations. The aim of this work was to test the potential genotoxic effects on circulating erythrocytes of the fish Cyprinus carpio exposed in vivo to well-waters disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or peracetic acid (CH3COO2H, PAA), in the absence or presence of standard humic acids (HA). The effects were measured by use of the micronucleus (MN) and the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assays at different sampling times after a 3-day exposure period. The exposure to chlorine disinfectants without the addition of HA produced a clear toxic effect. Significant cytogenetic damage (i.e. MN induction) was detected in fish populations exposed to both NaClO and ClO2 with humic acids. In the Comet assay, a significant decrease of DNA migration was observed in erythrocytes of specimens after exposure to NaClO-disinfected water without HA. No effects were observed in any other experimental condition. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    The EEE Project

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    The new experiment ``Extreme Energy Events'' (EEE) to detect extensive air showers through muon detection is starting in Italy. The use of particle detectors based on Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) will allow to determine with a very high accuracy the direction of the axis of cosmic ray showers initiated by primaries of ultra-high energy, together with a high temporal resolution. The installation of many of such 'telescopes' in numerous High Schools scattered all over the Italian territory will also allow to investigate coincidences between multiple primaries producing distant showers. Here we present the experimental apparatus and its tasks.Comment: 4 pages, 29th ICRC 2005, Pune, Indi
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