7,777 research outputs found

    Detection of new eruptions in the Magellanic Clouds LBVs R 40 and R 110

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    We performed a spectroscopic and photometric analysis to study new eruptions in two luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Magellanic Clouds. We detected a strong new eruption in the LBV R40 that reached V9.2V \sim 9.2 in 2016, which is around 1.31.3 mag brighter than the minimum registered in 1985. During this new eruption, the star changed from an A-type to a late F-type spectrum. Based on photometric and spectroscopic empirical calibrations and synthetic spectral modeling, we determine that R\,40 reached Teff=58006300T_{\mathrm{eff}} = 5800-6300~K during this new eruption. This object is thereby probably one of the coolest identified LBVs. We could also identify an enrichment of nitrogen and r- and s-process elements. We detected a weak eruption in the LBV R 110 with a maximum of V9.9V \sim 9.9 mag in 2011, that is, around 1.01.0 mag brighter than in the quiescent phase. On the other hand, this new eruption is about 0.20.2 mag fainter than the first eruption detected in 1990, but the temperature did not decrease below 8500 K. Spitzer spectra show indications of cool dust in the circumstellar environment of both stars, but no hot or warm dust was present, except by the probable presence of PAHs in R\,110. We also discuss a possible post-red supergiant nature for both stars

    A decentralized scalable approach to voltage control of DC islanded microgrids

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    We propose a new decentralized control scheme for DC Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) with a general interconnection topology. Each local controller regulates to a reference value the voltage of the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the corresponding DGU. Notably, off-line control design is conducted in a Plug-and-Play (PnP) fashion meaning that (i) the possibility of adding/removing a DGU without spoiling stability of the overall ImG is checked through an optimization problem; (ii) when a DGU is plugged in or out at most neighbouring DGUs have to update their controllers and (iii) the synthesis of a local controller uses only information on the corresponding DGU and lines connected to it. This guarantee total scalability of control synthesis as the ImG size grows or DGU gets replaced. Yes, under mild approximations of line dynamics, we formally guarantee stability of the overall closed-loop ImG. The performance of the proposed controllers is analyzed simulating different scenarios in PSCAD.Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1405.242

    Dynamin- and Rab5-Dependent Endocytosis of a Ca<sup>2+</sup>-Activated K<sup>+</sup> Channel, KCa2.3

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    Regulation of the number of ion channels at the plasma membrane is a critical component of the physiological response. We recently demonstrated that the Ca2+-activated K+ channel, KCa2.3 is rapidly endocytosed and enters a Rab35- and EPI64C-dependent recycling compartment. Herein, we addressed the early endocytic steps of KCa2.3 using a combination of fluorescence and biotinylation techniques. We demonstrate that KCa2.3 is localized to caveolin-rich domains of the plasma membrane using fluorescence co-localization, transmission electron microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). Further, in cells lacking caveolin-1, we observed an accumulation of KCa2.3 at the plasma membrane as well as a decreased rate of endocytosis, as assessed by biotinylation. We also demonstrate that KCa2.3 and dynamin II are co-localized following endocytosis as well as demonstrating they are associated by co-IP. Further, expression of K44A dynamin II resulted in a 2-fold increase in plasma membrane KCa2.3 as well as a 3-fold inhibition of endocytosis. Finally, we evaluated the role of Rab5 in the endocytosis of KCa2.3. We demonstrate that expression of a dominant active Rab5 (Q79L) results in the accumulation of newly endocytosed KCa2.3 on to the membrane of the Rab5-induced vacuoles. We confirmed this co-localization by co-IP; demonstrating that KCa2.3 and Rab5 are associated. As expected, if Rab5 is required for the endocytosis of KCa2.3, expression of a dominant negative Rab5 (S34N) resulted in an approximate 2-fold accumulation of KCa2.3 at the plasma membrane. This was confirmed by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rab5. Expression of the dominant negative Rab5 also resulted in a decreased rate of KCa2.3 endocytosis. These results demonstrate that KCa2.3 is localized to a caveolin-rich domain within the plasma membrane and is endocytosed in a dynamin- and Rab5-dependent manner prior to entering the Rab35/EPI64C recycling compartment and returning to the plasma membrane. © 2012 Gao et al

    Plug-and-play and coordinated control for bus-connected AC islanded microgrids

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    This paper presents a distributed control architecture for voltage and frequency stabilization in AC islanded microgrids. In the primary control layer, each generation unit is equipped with a local controller acting on the corresponding voltage-source converter. Following the plug-and-play design approach previously proposed by some of the authors, whenever the addition/removal of a distributed generation unit is required, feasibility of the operation is automatically checked by designing local controllers through convex optimization. The update of the voltage-control layer, when units plug -in/-out, is therefore automatized and stability of the microgrid is always preserved. Moreover, local control design is based only on the knowledge of parameters of power lines and it does not require to store a global microgrid model. In this work, we focus on bus-connected microgrid topologies and enhance the primary plug-and-play layer with local virtual impedance loops and secondary coordinated controllers ensuring bus voltage tracking and reactive power sharing. In particular, the secondary control architecture is distributed, hence mirroring the modularity of the primary control layer. We validate primary and secondary controllers by performing experiments with balanced, unbalanced and nonlinear loads, on a setup composed of three bus-connected distributed generation units. Most importantly, the stability of the microgrid after the addition/removal of distributed generation units is assessed. Overall, the experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed modular control design framework, where generation units can be added/removed on the fly, thus enabling the deployment of virtual power plants that can be resized over time

    The relationship of telomere length to baseline corticosterone levels in nestlings of an altricial passerine bird in natural populations.

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    BackgroundEnvironmental stressors increase the secretion of glucocorticoids that in turn can shorten telomeres via oxidative damage. Modification of telomere length, as a result of adversity faced early in life, can modify an individual's phenotype. Studies in captivity have suggested a relationship between glucocorticoids and telomere length in developing individuals, however less is known about that relationship in natural populations.MethodsIn order to evaluate the effect of early environmental stressors on telomere length in natural populations, we compared baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels and telomere length in nestlings of the same age. We collected blood samples for hormone assay and telomere determination from two geographically distinct populations of the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) that differed in brood size; nestlings body mass and primary productivity. Within each population we used path analysis to evaluate the relationship between brood size, body mass, baseline CORT and telomere length.ResultsWithin each distinct population, path coefficients showed a positive relationship between brood size and baseline CORT and a strong and negative correlation between baseline CORT and telomere length. In general, nestlings that presented higher baseline CORT levels tended to present shorter telomeres. When comparing populations it was the low latitude population that presented higher levels of baseline CORT and shorter telomere length.ConclusionsTaken together our results reveal the importance of the condition experienced early in life in affecting telomere length, and the relevance of integrative studies carried out in natural conditions