454 research outputs found

    Search for supernova-produced 60Fe in a marine sediment

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    An 60Fe peak in a deep-sea FeMn crust has been interpreted as due to the signature left by the ejecta of a supernova explosion close to the solar system 2.8 +/- 0.4 Myr ago [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 171103 (2004)]. To confirm this interpretation with better time resolution and obtain a more direct flux estimate, we measured 60Fe concentrations along a dated marine sediment. We find no 60Fe peak at the expected level from 1.7 to 3.2 Myr ago. However, applying the same chemistry used for the sediment, we confirm the 60Fe signal in the FeMn crust. The cause of the discrepancy is discussed.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, submitted to PR

    The political economy of the Jospin government

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    This article explores the political economy of the French Socialist Party (PS), beginning with the neo-liberal U-turn of 1983. It then charts the re-evaluation of the PS's political economic foundations after the 1993 defeat, the rejection of the neo-liberal 'pensée unique', and the rehabilitation of a broadly Keynesian frame of reference. The article goes on to explore how this shift has fed through into the Jospin government's policy and positions at both the national and international level. It explores aspirations to reinvent the EU as a Keynesian social democratic 'policy space', and at the national level, employment, macroeconomic, and structural policies

    Multi-scale analysis of the effect of loading conditions on monotonic and fatigue behavior of a glass fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite

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    In this paper, two kinds of PPS/GF composite samples (PPS-0°, PPS-90°) were prepared with two different fiber main orientations related to the injection direction. A wide range of their properties were discussed. Using DMTA analysis, it was shown that the PPS/GF composite under study obeyed the time-temperature equivalence principle. Moreover, Perez model was verified and gave a good estimation of the viscoelastic properties of the PPS/GF. Monotonic and fatigue behaviors and fatigue life of PPS/GF were investigated. Fiber's orientation, applied amplitude and loading frequency effects were emphasized. Self-heating effect on fatigue strength was also analyzed. SEM fracture surface observations allowed analyzing, at the local scale, the main deformation mechanisms occurring during mechanical loading. No evident damage development was observed for both monotonic and fatigue loading. PPS matrix plasticity appeared to be the predominant deformation mechanism until a semi-ductile or semi-brittle final failure depending on the loading conditions and local microstructure

    Pupillary Responses to Static Images of Men and Women: A Possible Measure of Sexual Interest?

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    The pupil dilates to images that are arousing. In Experiment 1, we examined if the pupil’s response to brief presentations (2,000 ms) of static images could be used to identify individuals’ sexual orientation. Participants were grouped according to their self-reported gender and sexual orientation (male heterosexual, N = 20; male bisexual, N = 13; male homosexual, N = 19; female heterosexual, N = 28; female bisexual, N = 21; female homosexual, N = 17). Pupil size was monitored to images of men in seminude poses, women in seminude poses, or neutral images. Every group showed the same pattern of responses, with the greatest dilation to male images, then female images, and least dilation to the neutral images. Experiment 2 used more tightly controlled stimuli and tested at two different image durations (150 and 3,000 ms). Both heterosexual men (N = 18) and women (N = 20) showed greater pupil dilation to images of nude men than to nude women. However, in Experiment 3, where we reduced the erotic content by using images of clothed models, both heterosexual men and women showed greater pupil dilation to images of women. The results showed that while the pupil does dilate strongly to sexual imagery, its response to these brief static images does not correspond to a person’s sexual orientation in a simple manne

    The mechanism of rate-dependent off-axis compression of a low fibre volume fraction thermoplastic matrix composite

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    This paper reports on the mechanism of rate-dependent off-axis compression of a unique unidirectional composite with unusually high matrix volume fraction of 65%. The test material is an E-glass fibre reinforced polypropylene composite and was subjected to quasi-static, medium and high strain rates (with strain rates from 10-3 s−1 to 103 s−1). This paper has shown experimental evidence of significant rate-dependence of yielding, strain softening and fracture strain of the test composite. Also, the study reports on the effect of strain rates on evolution of different failure modes of the composite. The observed rate-dependence was shown to result from the influence of the pure matrix on the constitutive behaviour of the composite. The work has used a two-process Ree-Eyring yield model of the matrix to demonstrate the origin of the observed rate-dependent yielding of the composite. The data derived in this study will be significant for further micro-mechanical modelling of finite deforming composites used in especially damage tolerant applications. Composite design engineers and stress analysis experts should benefit also from the findings in this work

    A Critical Examination of the X-Wind Model for Chondrule and Calcium-rich, Aluminum-rich Inclusion Formation and Radionuclide Production

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    Meteoritic data, especially regarding chondrules and calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and isotopic evidence for short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the solar nebula, potentially can constrain how planetary systems form. Intepretation of these data demands an astrophysical model, and the "X-wind" model of Shu et al. (1996) and collaborators has been advanced to explain the origin of chondrules, CAIs and SLRs. It posits that chondrules and CAIs were thermally processed < 0.1 AU from the protostar, then flung by a magnetocentrifugal outflow to the 2-3 AU region to be incorporated into chondrites. Here we critically examine key assumptions and predictions of the X-wind model. We find a number of internal inconsistencies: theory and observation show no solid material exists at 0.1 AU; particles at 0.1 AU cannot escape being accreted into the star; particles at 0.1 AU will collide at speeds high enough to destroy them; thermal sputtering will prevent growth of particles; and launching of particles in magnetocentrifugal outflows is not modeled, and may not be possible. We also identify a number of incorrect predictions of the X-wind model: the oxygen fugacity where CAIs form is orders of magnitude too oxidizing; chondrule cooling rates are orders of magnitude lower than those experienced by barred olivine chondrules; chondrule-matrix complementarity is not predicted; and the SLRs are not produced in their observed proportions. We conclude that the X-wind model is not relevant to chondrule and CAI formation and SLR production. We discuss more plausible models for chondrule and CAI formation and SLR production.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    Macroeconomic Fluctuations, Inequality, and Human Development

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    This paper examines the two-way relationship between inequality and economic fluctuations, and the implications for human development. For years, the dominant paradigm in macroeconomics, which assumed that income distribution did not matter, at least for macroeconomic behavior, ignored inequality--both its role in causing crises and the effect of fluctuations in general, and crises in particular, on inequality. But the most recent financial crisis has shown the errors in this thinking, and these views are finally beginning to be questioned. Economists who had looked at the average equity of a homeowner--ignoring the distribution--felt comfortable that the economy could easily withstand a large fall in housing prices. When such a fall occurred, however, it had disastrous effects, because a large fraction of homeowners owed more on their homes than the value of the home, leading to waves of foreclosure and economic stress. Policy-makers and economists alike have begun to take note: inequality can contribute to volatility and the creation of crises, and volatility can contribute to inequality. Here, we explore the variety of channels through which inequality affects fluctuations and fluctuations affect inequality, and explore how some of the changes in our economy may have contributed to increased inequality and volatility both directly and indirectly. After describing the two-way relationship, the paper discusses hysteresis--the fact that the consequences of an economic downturn can be long-lived. Then, it examines how policy can either mitigate or exacerbate the inequality consequences of economic downturns, and shows how well-intentioned policies can sometimes be counterproductive. Finally, it links these issues to human development, especially in developing countries