4,969 research outputs found

    Life Products of Stars

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    We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.Comment: 26 pages, including 8 figures and 3 tables. Submitted to ApJ

    Optical Identification of Close White Dwarf Binaries in the LISA Era

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    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to detect close white dwarf binaries (CWDBs) through their gravitational radiation. Around 3000 binaries will be spectrally resolved at frequencies > 3 mHz, and their positions on the sky will be determined to an accuracy ranging from a few tens of arcminutes to a degree or more. Due to the small binary separation, the optical light curves of >~ 30% of these CWDBs are expected to show eclipses, giving a unique signature for identification in follow-up studies of the LISA error boxes. While the precise optical location improves binary parameter determination with LISA data, the optical light curve captures additional physics of the binary, including the individual sizes of the stars in terms of the orbital separation. To optically identify a substantial fraction of CWDBs and thus localize them very accurately, a rapid monitoring campaign is required, capable of imaging a square degree or more in a reasonable time, at intervals of 10--100 seconds, to magnitudes between 20 and 25. While the detectable fraction can be up to many tens of percent of the total resolved LISA CWDBs, the exact fraction is uncertain due to unknowns related to the white dwarf spatial distribution, and potentially interesting physics, such as induced tidal heating of the WDs due to their small orbital separation.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Modeling lithium rich carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud: an independent distance indicator ?

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    We present the first quantitative results explaining the presence in the Large Magellanic Cloud of some asymptotic giant branch stars that share the properties of lithium rich carbon stars. A self-consistent description of time-dependent mixing, overshooting, and nuclear burning was required. We identify a narrow range of masses and luminosities for this peculiar stars. Comparison of these models with the luminosities of the few Li-rich C stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud provides an independent distance indicator for the LMCComment: 7 pages, 2 figure

    A Phenomenological Study of African American Youth Aging Out of the Foster Care System

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    In the United States, approximately 30,000 youth “age out” of the foster care system and enter independent living each year. Statistics indicate poverty, homelessness, unmet needs, and mental illness occur at higher rates for these youth than their non-foster care peers, and little research has been conducted regarding their experience. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experience of African American youth who have aged out of the foster care system and factors they attribute to their transitional outcomes. The attribution and emerging adulthood theories guided this study. Data were collected via interview from a sample size of 12 African American youth aged 21- through 25-years-old who have aged out of the foster care system. The data were analyzed using Moustaka’s steps of analysis and coded to identify categories and themes. Themes emerging from the data included 7 areas of challenge in skills and preparation for independent living. The findings of this study suggested that ongoing preparation before and after emancipation, adult support, and supportive services, are some of the essential components that may ensure positive transitional outcomes. Recommendations include further research of the ongoing dilemma of this vulnerable population with focus on giving foster youth a voice in generating greater understanding of the difficulties, and improvement of policies and support services to reduce societal costs and generate positive outcomes resulting in social change

    Integral-Field Spectroscopy of the Post Red Supergiant IRC +10420: evidence for an axi-symmetric wind

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    We present NAOMI/OASIS adaptive-optics assisted integral-field spectroscopy of the transitional massive hypergiant IRC +10420, an extreme mass-losing star apparently in the process of evolving from a Red Supergiant toward the Wolf-Rayet phase. To investigate the present-day mass-loss geometry of the star, we study the appearance of the line-emission from the inner wind as viewed when reflected off the surrounding nebula. We find that, contrary to previous work, there is strong evidence for wind axi-symmetry, based on the equivalent-width and velocity variations of Hα\alpha and Fe {\sc ii} λ\lambda6516. We attribute this behaviour to the appearance of the complex line-profiles when viewed from different angles. We also speculate that the Ti {\sc ii} emission originates in the outer nebula in a region analogous to the Strontium Filament of η\eta Carinae, based on the morphology of the line-emission. Finally, we suggest that the present-day axisymmetric wind of IRC +10420, combined with its continued blueward evolution, is evidence that the star is evolving toward the B[e] supergiant phase.Comment: 22 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ. B&W-optimized version can be downloaded from http://www.cis.rit.edu/~bxdpci/pubs.htm

    Observational Tests and Predictive Stellar Evolution II: Non-standard Models

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    We examine contributions of second order physical processes to results of stellar evolution calculations amenable to direct observational testing. In the first paper in the series (Young et al. 2001) we established baseline results using only physics which are common to modern stellar evolution codes. In the current paper we establish how much of the discrepancy between observations and baseline models is due to particular elements of new physics. We then consider the impact of the observational uncertainties on the maximum predictive accuracy achievable by a stellar evolution code. The sun is an optimal case because of the precise and abundant observations and the relative simplicity of the underlying stellar physics. The Standard Model is capable of matching the structure of the sun as determined by helioseismology and gross surface observables to better than a percent. Given an initial mass and surface composition within the observational errors, and no additional constraints for which the models can be optimized, it is not possible to predict the sun's current state to better than ~7%. Convectively induced mixing in radiative regions, seen in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations, dramatically improves the predictions for radii, luminosity, and apsidal motions of eclipsing binaries while simultaneously maintaining consistency with observed light element depletion and turnoff ages in young clusters (Young et al. 2003). Systematic errors in core size for models of massive binaries disappear with more complete mixing physics, and acceptable fits are achieved for all of the binaries without calibration of free parameters. The lack of accurate abundance determinations for binaries is now the main obstacle to improving stellar models using this type of test.Comment: 33 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Optimization of Starburst99 for Intermediate-Age and Old Stellar Populations

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    We have incorporated the latest release of the Padova models into the evolutionary synthesis code Starburst99. The Padova tracks were extended to include the full asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution until the final thermal pulse over the mass range 0.9 to 5 solar mass. With this addition, Starburst99 accounts for all stellar phases that contribute to the integrated light of a stellar population with arbitrary age from the extreme ultraviolet to the near-infrared. AGB stars are important for ages between 0.1 and 2 Gyr, with their contribution increasing at longer wavelengths. We investigate similarities and differences between the model predictions by the Geneva and the Padova tracks. The differences are particularly pronounced at ages > 1 Gyr, when incompleteness sets in for the Geneva models. We also perform detailed comparisons with the predictions of other major synthesis codes and found excellent agreement. Our synthesized optical colors are compared to observations of old, intermediate-age, and young populations. Excellent agreement is found for the old globular cluster system of NGC 5128 and for old and intermediate-age clusters in NGC 4038/39. In contrast, the models fail for red supergiant dominated populations with sub-solar abundances. This failure can be traced back to incorrect red supergiant parameters in the stellar evolutionary tracks. Our models and the synthesis code are publicly available as version 5.0 of Starburst99 at http://www.stsci.edu/science/starburst99/.Comment: The revised Starburst99 code discussed in this paper will replace the current version 4.0 on our Starburst99 website by December 31, 2004. Accepted for publication in ApJ; 39 pages, 23 figures, 5 table

    Stellar Hydrodynamics in Radiative Regions

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    We present an analysis of the response of a radiative region to waves generated by a convective region of the star; this wave treatment of the classical problem of ``overshooting'' gives extra mixing relative to the treatment traditionally used in stellar evolutionary codes. The interface between convectively stable and unstable regions is dynamic and nonspherical, so that the nonturbulent material is driven into motion, even in the absence of ``penetrative overshoot.'' These motions may be described by the theory of nonspherical stellar pulsations, and are related to motion measured by helioseismology. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations of convective flow show puzzling features which we explain by this simplified physical model. Gravity waves generated at the interface are dissipated, resulting in slow circulation and mixing seen outside the formal convection zone. The approach may be extended to deal with rotation and composition gradients. Tests of this description in the stellar evolution code TYCHO produce carbon stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), an isochrone age for the Hyades and three young clusters with lithium depletion ages from brown dwarfs, and lithium and beryllium depletion consistent with observations of the Hyades and Pleiades, all without tuning parameters. The insight into the different contributions of rotational and hydrodynamic mixing processes could have important implications for realistic simulation of supernovae and other questions in stellar evolution.Comment: 27 pages, 5 figures, accepted to the Astrophysical Journa

    Effects of a burst of formation of first-generation stars on the evolution of galaxies

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    First-generation (Population III) stars in the universe play an important role inearly enrichment of heavy elements in galaxies and intergalactic medium and thus affect the history of galaxies. The physical and chemical properties of primordial gas clouds are significantly different from those of present-day gas clouds observed in the nearby universe because the primordial gas clouds do not contain any heavy elements which are important coolants in the gas. Previous theoretical considerations have suggested that typical masses of the first-generation stars are between several MM_\odot and 10M\approx 10 M_\odot although it has been argued that the formation of very massive stars (e.g., >100M> 100 M_\odot) is also likely. If stars with several MM_\odot are most popular ones at the epoch of galaxy formation, most stars will evolve to hot (e.g., 105\gtrsim 10^5 K), luminous (104L\sim 10^4 L_\odot) stars with gaseous and dusty envelope prior to going to die as white dwarf stars. Although the duration of this phase is short (e.g., 105\sim 10^5 yr), such evolved stars could contribute both to the ionization of gas in galaxies and to the production of a lot of dust grains if the formation of intermediate-mass stars is highly enhanced. We compare gaseous emission-line properties of such nebulae with some interesting high-redshift galaxies such asIRAS F10214+4724 and powerful radio galaxies.Comment: 25 pages, 7 figures, ApJ, in pres

    Crossing the `Yellow Void' -- Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the Post- Red Supergiant IRC+10420 and Its Circumstellar Ejecta

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    IRC +10420 is one of the extreme hypergiant stars that define the empirical upper luminosity boundary in the HR diagram. During their post--RSG evolution, these massive stars enter a temperature range (6000-9000 K) of increased dynamical instability, high mass loss, and increasing opacity, a semi--forbidden region, that de Jager and his collaborators have called the `yellow void'. We report HST/STIS spatially resolved spectroscopy of IRC +10420 and its reflection nebula with some surprising results. Long slit spectroscopy of the reflected spectrum allows us to effectively view the star from different directions. Measurements of the double--peaked Halpha emission profile show a uniform outflow of gas in a nearly spherical distribution, contrary to previous models with an equatorial disk or bipolar outflow. Based on the temperature and mass loss rate estimates that are usually quoted for this object, the wind is optically thick to the continuum at some and possibly all wavelengths. Consequently the observed variations in apparent spectral type and inferred temperature are changes in the wind and do not necessarily mean that the underlying stellar radius and interior structure are evolving on such a short timescale. To explain the evidence for simultaneous outflow and infall of material near the star, we propose a `rain' model in which blobs of gas condense in regions of lowered opacity outside the dense wind. With the apparent warming of its wind, the recent appearance of strong emission, and a decline in the mass loss rate, IRC +10420 may be about to shed its opaque wind, cross the `yellow void', and emerge as a hotter star.Comment: To appear in the Astronomical Journal, August 200
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