1,289 research outputs found

    Determining physical properties of the cell cortex

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    Actin and myosin assemble into a thin layer of a highly dynamic network underneath the membrane of eukaryotic cells. This network generates the forces that drive cell and tissue-scale morphogenetic processes. The effective material properties of this active network determine large-scale deformations and other morphogenetic events. For example,the characteristic time of stress relaxation (the Maxwell time)in the actomyosin sets the time scale of large-scale deformation of the cortex. Similarly, the characteristic length of stress propagation (the hydrodynamic length) sets the length scale of slow deformations, and a large hydrodynamic length is a prerequisite for long-ranged cortical flows. Here we introduce a method to determine physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer (in vivo). For this we investigate the relaxation dynamics of the cortex in response to laser ablation in the one-cell-stage {\it C. elegans} embryo and in the gastrulating zebrafish embryo. These responses can be interpreted using a coarse grained physical description of the cortex in terms of a two dimensional thin film of an active viscoelastic gel. To determine the Maxwell time, the hydrodynamic length and the ratio of active stress and per-area friction, we evaluated the response to laser ablation in two different ways: by quantifying flow and density fields as a function of space and time, and by determining the time evolution of the shape of the ablated region. Importantly, both methods provide best fit physical parameters that are in close agreement with each other and that are similar to previous estimates in the two systems. We provide an accurate and robust means for measuring physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer.It can be useful for investigations of actomyosin mechanics at the cellular-scale, but also for providing insights in the active mechanics processes that govern tissue-scale morphogenesis.Comment: 17 pages, 4 figure

    Extra-Dimensions effects on the fermion-induced quantum energy in the presence of a constant magnetic field

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    We consider a U(1) gauge field theory with fermion fields (or with scalar fields) that live in a space with δ\delta extra compact dimensions, and we compute the fermion-induced quantum energy in the presence of a constant magnetic field, which is directed towards the x_3 axis. Our motivation is to study the effect of extra dimensions on the asymptotic behavior of the quantum energy in the strong field limit (eB>>M^{2}), where M=1/R. We see that the weak logarithmic growth of the quantum energy for four dimensions, is modified by a rapid power growth in the case of the extra dimensions.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, several correction

    Information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a maximally entangled state

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    We derive the amount of information retrieved by a quantum measurement in estimating an unknown maximally entangled state, along with the pertaining disturbance on the state itself. The optimal tradeoff between information and disturbance is obtained, and a corresponding optimal measurement is provided.Comment: 4 pages. Accepted for publication on Physical Review Letter

    Interacting classical and quantum ensembles

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    A consistent description of interactions between classical and quantum systems is relevant to quantum measurement theory, and to calculations in quantum chemistry and quantum gravity. A solution is offered here to this longstanding problem, based on a universally-applicable formalism for ensembles on configuration space. This approach overcomes difficulties arising in previous attempts, and in particular allows for backreaction on the classical ensemble, conservation of probability and energy, and the correct classical equations of motion in the limit of no interaction. Applications include automatic decoherence for quantum ensembles interacting with classical measurement apparatuses; a generalisation of coherent states to hybrid harmonic oscillators; and an equation for describing the interaction of quantum matter fields with classical gravity, that implies the radius of a Robertson-Walker universe with a quantum massive scalar field can be sharply defined only for particular `quantized' values.Comment: 31 pages, minor clarifications and one Ref. added, to appear in PR

    Symmetry-preserving Loop Regularization and Renormalization of QFTs

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    A new symmetry-preserving loop regularization method proposed in \cite{ylw} is further investigated. It is found that its prescription can be understood by introducing a regulating distribution function to the proper-time formalism of irreducible loop integrals. The method simulates in many interesting features to the momentum cutoff, Pauli-Villars and dimensional regularization. The loop regularization method is also simple and general for the practical calculations to higher loop graphs and can be applied to both underlying and effective quantum field theories including gauge, chiral, supersymmetric and gravitational ones as the new method does not modify either the lagrangian formalism or the space-time dimension of original theory. The appearance of characteristic energy scale McM_c and sliding energy scale μs\mu_s offers a systematic way for studying the renormalization-group evolution of gauge theories in the spirit of Wilson-Kadanoff and for exploring important effects of higher dimensional interaction terms in the infrared regime.Comment: 13 pages, Revtex, extended modified version, more references adde

    Fractal Characterizations of MAX Statistical Distribution in Genetic Association Studies

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    Two non-integer parameters are defined for MAX statistics, which are maxima of dd simpler test statistics. The first parameter, dMAXd_{MAX}, is the fractional number of tests, representing the equivalent numbers of independent tests in MAX. If the dd tests are dependent, dMAX<dd_{MAX} < d. The second parameter is the fractional degrees of freedom kk of the chi-square distribution χk2\chi^2_k that fits the MAX null distribution. These two parameters, dMAXd_{MAX} and kk, can be independently defined, and kk can be non-integer even if dMAXd_{MAX} is an integer. We illustrate these two parameters using the example of MAX2 and MAX3 statistics in genetic case-control studies. We speculate that kk is related to the amount of ambiguity of the model inferred by the test. In the case-control genetic association, tests with low kk (e.g. k=1k=1) are able to provide definitive information about the disease model, as versus tests with high kk (e.g. k=2k=2) that are completely uncertain about the disease model. Similar to Heisenberg's uncertain principle, the ability to infer disease model and the ability to detect significant association may not be simultaneously optimized, and kk seems to measure the level of their balance

    Unsharp Quantum Reality

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    The positive operator (valued) measures (POMs) allow one to generalize the notion of observable beyond the traditional one based on projection valued measures (PVMs). Here, we argue that this generalized conception of observable enables a consistent notion of unsharp reality and with it an adequate concept of joint properties. A sharp or unsharp property manifests itself as an element of sharp or unsharp reality by its tendency to become actual or to actualize a specific measurement outcome. This actualization tendency-or potentiality-of a property is quantified by the associated quantum probability. The resulting single-case interpretation of probability as a degree of reality will be explained in detail and its role in addressing the tensions between quantum and classical accounts of the physical world will be elucidated. It will be shown that potentiality can be viewed as a causal agency that evolves in a well-defined way

    Uncertainty reconciles complementarity with joint measurability

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    The fundamental principles of complementarity and uncertainty are shown to be related to the possibility of joint unsharp measurements of pairs of noncommuting quantum observables. A new joint measurement scheme for complementary observables is proposed. The measured observables are represented as positive operator valued measures (POVMs), whose intrinsic fuzziness parameters are found to satisfy an intriguing pay-off relation reflecting the complementarity. At the same time, this relation represents an instance of a Heisenberg uncertainty relation for measurement imprecisions. A model-independent consideration show that this uncertainty relation is logically connected with the joint measurability of the POVMs in question.Comment: 4 pages, RevTeX. Title of previous version: "Complementarity and uncertainty - entangled in joint path-interference measurements". This new version focuses on the "measurement uncertainty relation" and its role, disentangling this issue from the special context of path interference duality. See also http://www.vjquantuminfo.org (October 2003

    Effective Actions, Boundaries and Precision Calculations of Casimir Energies

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    We perform the matching required to compute the leading effective boundary contribution to the QED lagrangian in the presence of a conducting surface, once the electron is integrated out. Our result resolves a confusion in the literature concerning the interpretation of the leading such correction to the Casimir energy. It also provides a useful theoretical laboratory for brane-world calculations in which kinetic terms are generated on the brane, since a lot is known about QED near boundaries.Comment: 5 pages. revtex; Added paragraphs describing finite-conductivity effects and effects due to curvatur

    Thermal correlators of anyons in two dimensions

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    The anyon fields have trivial α\alpha-commutator for α\alpha not integer. For integer α\alpha the commutators become temperature-dependent operator valued distributions. The nn-point functions do not factorize as for quasifree states.Comment: 14 pages, LaTeX (misprints corrected, a reference added
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