2,152 research outputs found

    Genotoxicity of nitroso compounds and sodium dichromate in a model combining organ cultures of human nasal epithelia and the comet assay

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    Genotoxic effects of xenobiotics are a possible step in tumor initiation in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Using the comet assay, detecting genotoxicity in human tissue has been restricted to single incubations in vitro, but in vivo most xenobiotics harm their target in a repetitive or chronic manner. Therefore, we propose a model, which provides repetitive incubations in human upper aerodigestive tract mucosa cultures. Samples of human inferior nasal turbinate mucosa (n = 25) were cultured according to a modified version of a technique originally described by Steinsvag. On day 1 fresh samples and on days 7, 9 and 11 organ cultures were incubated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7) and N'-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG). Mucosa samples and organ cultures, respectively, underwent a modified comet assay on days 1, 7 and 11. Genotoxicity could be shown for NDEA, Na2Cr2O7 and MNNG on days 1, 7 and 11. Duration of tissue culture and repetitive incubations did not significantly influence the results for NDEA. Nevertheless, Na2Cr2O7 and MNNG caused higher genotoxic effects on cultures subjected to the comet assay on day 11. This model may help to assess genotoxic hazards posed by environ mental pollutants that have a cumulative character in repetitive or chronic exposure in vivo. Copyright (C) 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Search for supernova-produced 60Fe in a marine sediment

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    An 60Fe peak in a deep-sea FeMn crust has been interpreted as due to the signature left by the ejecta of a supernova explosion close to the solar system 2.8 +/- 0.4 Myr ago [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 171103 (2004)]. To confirm this interpretation with better time resolution and obtain a more direct flux estimate, we measured 60Fe concentrations along a dated marine sediment. We find no 60Fe peak at the expected level from 1.7 to 3.2 Myr ago. However, applying the same chemistry used for the sediment, we confirm the 60Fe signal in the FeMn crust. The cause of the discrepancy is discussed.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, submitted to PR

    Simulating ice core 10Be on the glacial–interglacial timescale

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    10Be ice core measurements are an important tool for paleoclimate research, e.g., allowing for the reconstruction of past solar activity or changes in the geomagnetic dipole field. However, especially on multi-millennial timescales, the share of production and climate-induced variations of respective 10Be ice core records is still up for debate. Here we present the first quantitative climatological model of the 10Be ice concentration up to the glacial–interglacial timescale. The model approach is composed of (i) a coarse resolution global atmospheric transport model and (ii) a local 10Be air–firn transfer model. Extensive global-scale observational data of short-lived radionuclides as well as new polar 10Be snow-pit measurements are used for model calibration and validation. Being specifically configured for 10Be in polar ice, this tool thus allows for a straightforward investigation of production- and non-production-related modulation of this nuclide. We find that the polar 10Be ice concentration does not immediately record the globally mixed cosmogenic production signal. Using geomagnetic modulation and revised Greenland snow accumulation rate changes as model input, we simulate the observed Greenland Summit (GRIP and GISP2) 10Be ice core records over the last 75 kyr (on the GICC05modelext timescale). We show that our basic model is capable of reproducing the largest portion of the observed 10Be changes. However, model–measurement differences exhibit multi-millennial trends (differences up to 87% in case of normalized to the Holocene records) which call for closer investigation. Focusing on the (12–37) b2k (before the year AD 2000) period, mean model–measurement differences of 30% cannot be attributed to production changes. However, unconsidered climate-induced changes could likely explain the model–measurement mismatch. In fact, the 10Be ice concentration is very sensitive to snow accumulation changes. Here the reconstructed Greenland Summit (GRIP) snow accumulation rate record would require revision of +28% to solely account for the (12–37) b2k model–measurement differences

    From Gravitons to Gravity: Myths and Reality

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    There is a general belief, reinforced by statements in standard textbooks, that: (i) one can obtain the full non-linear Einstein's theory of gravity by coupling a massless, spin-2 field habh_{ab} self-consistently to the total energy momentum tensor, including its own; (ii) this procedure is unique and leads to Einstein-Hilbert action and (iii) it only uses standard concepts in Lorentz invariant field theory and does not involve any geometrical assumptions. After providing several reasons why such beliefs are suspect -- and critically re-examining several previous attempts -- we provide a detailed analysis aimed at clarifying the situation. First, we prove that it is \textit{impossible} to obtain the Einstein-Hilbert (EH) action, starting from the standard action for gravitons in linear theory and iterating repeatedly. Second, we use the Taylor series expansion of the action for Einstein's theory, to identify the tensor Sab\mathcal{S}^{ab}, to which the graviton field habh_{ab} couples to the lowest order. We show that the second rank tensor Sab\mathcal{S}^{ab} is {\it not} the conventional energy momentum tensor TabT^{ab} of the graviton and provide an explanation for this feature. Third, we construct the full nonlinear Einstein's theory with the source being spin-0 field, spin-1 field or relativistic particles by explicitly coupling the spin-2 field to this second rank tensor Sab\mathcal{S}^{ab} order by order and summing up the infinite series. Finally, we construct the theory obtained by self consistently coupling habh_{ab} to the conventional energy momentum tensor TabT^{ab} order by order and show that this does {\it not} lead to Einstein's theory. (condensed).Comment: revtex; 19 pages; no figure

    Population Regulation of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) by Parasitoids: Does Spatial Density Dependence Lead to Temporal Density Dependence?

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    In 1987, four gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, (L.) densities were established in eight 1-ha plots in western Massachusetts, ranging from 50,000 to 1.4 M neonates per hectare. Two tachinid parasitoid species, Compsilura concinnata (Meigen) and Parasetigena silvestris (Robineau-Desvoidy), exhibited spatial density-dependent parasistism and C. concinnata was the major source of gypsy moth mortality. This study investigated whether spatial density-dependent mortality in 1987 translated into temporal density-dependent mortality of experimental gypsy moth populations created the following year (1988). C. concinnata was responsible for the largest percentage of gypsy moth mortality again in 1988, however, overall mortality caused by C. concinnata in 1988 was considerably less than in 1987. Gypsy moth mortality caused by P. silvestris was greater in 1988. The killing power of either parasitoid in 1988 were not linearly related to the estimated density of the parasitoids produced in the previous year. We saw no evidence for a between-generation numerical response (1-ha scale) of either the generalist parasitoid, C. concinnata, or the specialist parasitoid, P. silvestris, between 1987 and 198

    Burn Care in the Greek and Roman Antiquity

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    The last century brought about more rapid new developments in the treatment of burns, which significantly lowered the mortality of burn injuries. However, burns were already treated in antiquity, where the threshold from spirituality to scientific medicine originated. The existing literature on burn treatment is very limited and there are many cross-references, some of them incorrect. The aim of this work by an interdisciplinary team of historians and physicians is to offer a more precise reproduction of the burn treatment of Greek and Roman antiquity using original texts in context and with a modern scientific background. There are many sources from ancient doctors on the subject of burn treatment, as well as the treatment of burned-out wounds and frostbite, which have not yet been mentioned. The literature research also showed an understanding of scientific contexts in ancient medicine, such as antiseptics or rheology. Interestingly, there was a change in burn medicine from everyday Greek medicine to Roman military medicine with other burn patterns. The care of patients using analgetics and the therapy of burn shock arose from the literature. The ancient world is considered to be the foundation of medicine, but it is believed to have been based mainly on shamanism rather than science. However, already more than two millennia ago, burns were correctly assessed and treated according to today’s scientific standards and scientific relationships were recognized

    Reality Conditions and Ashtekar Variables: a Different Perspective

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    We give in this paper a modified self-dual action that leads to the SO(3)SO(3)-ADM formalism without having to face the difficult second class constraints present in other approaches (for example if one starts from the Hilbert-Palatini action). We use the new action principle to gain some new insights into the problem of the reality conditions that must be imposed in order to get real formulations from complex general relativity. We derive also a real formulation for Lorentzian general relativity in the Ashtekar phase space by using the modified action presented in the paper.Comment: 22 pages, LATEX, Preprint CGPG-94/10-

    MYOD-1 in normal colonic mucosa : role as a putative biomarker?

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    Background DNA methylation of promoter-associated CpG islands of certain genes may play a role in the development of colorectal cancer. The MYOD-1 gene which is a muscle differentiation gene has been showed to be significantly methylated in colorectal cancer which, is an age related event. However the role of this gene in the colonic mucosa is not understood and whether methylation occurs in subjects without colon cancer. In this study, we have determined the frequency of methylation of the MYOD-1 gene in normal colonic mucosa and investigated to see if this is associated with established colorectal cancer risk factors primarily ageing. Results We analysed colonic mucosal biopsies in 218 normal individuals and demonstrated that in most individuals promoter hypermethylation was not quantified for MYOD-1. However, promoter hypermethylation increased significantly with age (p < 0.001 using regression analysis) and this was gender independent. We also showed that gene promoter methylation increased positively with an increase in waist to hip (WHR) ratio – the latter is also a known risk factor for colon cancer development. Conclusions Our study suggests that promoter gene hypermethylation of the MYOD-1 gene increases significantly with age in normal individuals and thus may offer potential as a putative biomarker for colorectal cancer
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