746 research outputs found

    Worker heterogeneity, new monopsony, and training

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    A worker's output depends not only on his/her own ability but also on that of colleagues, who can facilitate the performance of tasks that each individual cannot accomplish on his/her own. We show that this common-sense observation generates monopsony power and is sufficient to explain why employers might expend resources on training employees even when the training is of use to other firms. We show that training will take place in better-than-average or ‘good’ firms enjoying greater monopsony power, whereas ‘bad’ firms will have low-ability workers unlikely to receive much training

    Calsenilin is required for endocrine pancreas development in zebrafish.

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    peer reviewedCalsenilin/DREAM/Kchip3 is a neuronal calcium-binding protein. It is a multifunctional protein, mainly expressed in neural tissues and implicated in regulation of presenilin processing, repression of transcription, and modulation of A-type potassium channels. Here, we performed a search for new genes expressed during pancreatic development and have studied the spatiotemporal expression pattern and possible role of calsenilin in pancreatic development in zebrafish. We detected calsenilin transcripts in the pancreas from 21 somites to 39 hours postfertilization stages. Using double in situ hybridization, we found that the calsenilin gene was expressed in pancreatic endocrine cells. Loss-of-function experiments with anti-calsenilin morpholinos demonstrated that injected morphants have a significant decrease in the number of pancreatic endocrine cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of calsenilin leads to perturbation in islet morphogenesis, suggesting that calsenilin is required for early islet cell migration. Taken together, our results show that zebrafish calsenilin is involved in endocrine cell differentiation and morphogenesis within the pancreas

    Calsenilin is required for endocrine pancreas development in zebrafish.

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    peer reviewedCalsenilin/DREAM/Kchip3 is a neuronal calcium-binding protein. It is a multifunctional protein, mainly expressed in neural tissues and implicated in regulation of presenilin processing, repression of transcription, and modulation of A-type potassium channels. Here, we performed a search for new genes expressed during pancreatic development and have studied the spatiotemporal expression pattern and possible role of calsenilin in pancreatic development in zebrafish. We detected calsenilin transcripts in the pancreas from 21 somites to 39 hours postfertilization stages. Using double in situ hybridization, we found that the calsenilin gene was expressed in pancreatic endocrine cells. Loss-of-function experiments with anti-calsenilin morpholinos demonstrated that injected morphants have a significant decrease in the number of pancreatic endocrine cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of calsenilin leads to perturbation in islet morphogenesis, suggesting that calsenilin is required for early islet cell migration. Taken together, our results show that zebrafish calsenilin is involved in endocrine cell differentiation and morphogenesis within the pancreas

    Prdm1- and Sox6-mediated transcriptional repression specifies muscle fibre type in the zebrafish embryo

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    The zebrafish u-boot (ubo) gene encodes the transcription factor Prdm1, which is essential for the specification of the primary slow-twitch muscle fibres that derive from adaxial cells. Here, we show that Prdm1 functions by acting as a transcriptional repressor and that slow-twitch-specific muscle gene expression is activated by Prdm1-mediated repression of the transcriptional repressor Sox6. Genes encoding fast-specific isoforms of sarcomeric proteins are ectopically expressed in the adaxial cells of ubotp39 mutant embryos. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that these are direct targets of Prdm1. Thus, Prdm1 promotes slow-twitch fibre differentiation by acting as a global repressor of fast-fibre-specific genes, as well as by abrogating the repression of slow-fibre-specific genes

    Reduction of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) leads to visual impairment in vertebrates

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    In vertebrates, mitochondria are tightly preserved energy producing organelles, which sustain nervous system development and function. The understanding of proteins that regulate their homoeostasis in complex animals is therefore critical and doing so via means of systemic analysis pivotal to inform pathophysiological conditions associated with mitochondrial deficiency. With the goal to decipher the role of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) in brain development, we employed the zebrafish as elected model reporting that the Atpif1a−/− zebrafish mutant, pinotage (pnttq209), which lacks one of the two IF1 paralogous, exhibits visual impairment alongside increased apoptotic bodies and neuroinflammation in both brain and retina. This associates with increased processing of the dynamin-like GTPase optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), whose ablation is a direct cause of inherited optic atrophy. Defects in vision associated with the processing of OPA1 are specular in Atpif1−/− mice thus confirming a regulatory axis, which interlinks IF1 and OPA1 in the definition of mitochondrial fitness and specialised brain functions. This study unveils a functional relay between IF1 and OPA1 in central nervous system besides representing an example of how the zebrafish model could be harnessed to infer the activity of mitochondrial proteins during development

    Bmp and Nodal Independently Regulate lefty1 Expression to Maintain Unilateral Nodal Activity during Left-Right Axis Specification in Zebrafish

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    In vertebrates, left-right (LR) axis specification is determined by a ciliated structure in the posterior region of the embryo. Fluid flow in this ciliated structure is responsible for the induction of unilateral left-sided Nodal activity in the lateral plate mesoderm, which in turn regulates organ laterality. Bmp signalling activity has been implied in repressing Nodal expression on the right side, however its mechanism of action has been controversial. In a forward genetic screen for mutations that affect LR patterning, we identified the zebrafish linkspoot (lin) mutant, characterized by cardiac laterality and mild dorsoventral patterning defects. Mapping of the lin mutation revealed an inactivating missense mutation in the Bmp receptor 1aa (bmpr1aa) gene. Embryos with a mutation in lin/bmpr1aa and a novel mutation in its paralogue, bmpr1ab, displayed a variety of dorsoventral and LR patterning defects with increasing severity corresponding with a decrease in bmpr1a dosage. In Bmpr1a-deficient embryos we observed bilateral expression of the Nodal-related gene, spaw, coupled with reduced expression of the Nodal-antagonist lefty1 in the midline. Using genetic models to induce or repress Bmp activity in combination with Nodal inhibition or activation, we found that Bmp and Nodal regulate lefty1 expression in the midline independently of each other. Furthermore, we observed that the regulation of lefty1 by Bmp signalling is required for its observed downregulation of Nodal activity in the LPM providing a novel explanation for this phenomenon. From these results we propose a two-step model in which Bmp regulates LR patterning. Prior to the onset of nodal flow and Nodal activation, Bmp is required to induce lefty1 expression in the midline. When nodal flow has been established and Nodal activity is apparent, both Nodal and Bmp independently are required for lefty1 expression to assure unilateral Nodal activation and correct LR patterning

    Functional Analysis of Conserved Non-Coding Regions Around the Short Stature hox Gene (shox) in Whole Zebrafish Embryos

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    Background: Mutations in the SHOX gene are responsible for Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis, a disorder characterised by mesomelic limb shortening. Recent investigations into regulatory elements surrounding SHOX have shown that deletions of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) downstream of the SHOX gene produce a phenotype indistinguishable from Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis. As this gene is not found in rodents, we used zebrafish as a model to characterise the expression pattern of the shox gene across the whole embryo and characterise the enhancer domains of different CNEs associated with this gene. Methodology/Principal Findings: Expression of the shox gene in zebrafish was identified using in situ hybridization, with embryos showing expression in the blood, putative heart, hatching gland, brain pharyngeal arch, olfactory epithelium, and fin bud apical ectodermal ridge. By identifying sequences showing 65% identity over at least 40 nucleotides between Fugu, human, dog and opossum we uncovered 35 CNEs around the shox gene. These CNEs were compared with CNEs previously discovered by Sabherwal et al. ,resulting in the identification of smaller more deeply conserved sub-sequence. Sabherwal et al.’s CNEs were assayed for regulatory function in whole zebrafish embryos resulting in the identification of additional tissues under the regulatory control of these CNEs. Conclusion/Significance: Our results using whole zebrafish embryos have provided a more comprehensive picture of the expression pattern of the shox gene, and a better understanding of its regulation via deeply conserved noncoding elements. In particular, we identify additional tissues under the regulatory control of previously identified SHOX CNEs. We also demonstrate the importance of these CNEs in evolution by identifying duplicated shox CNEs and more deeply conserved sub-sequences within already identified CNEs

    HuB (elavl2) mRNA Is Restricted to the Germ Cells by Post-Transcriptional Mechanisms including Stabilisation of the Message by DAZL

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    The ability of germ cells to carry out a gene regulatory program distinct from the surrounding somatic tissue, and their capacity to specify an entire new organism has made them a focus of many studies that seek to understand how specific regulatory mechanisms, particularly post-transcriptional mechanisms, contribute to cell fate. In zebrafish, germ cells are specified through the inheritance of cytoplasmic determinants, termed the germ plasm, which contains a number of maternal mRNAs and proteins. Investigation of several of these messages has revealed that the restricted localisation of these mRNAs to the germ plasm and subsequent germ cells is due to cis-acting sequence elements present in their 3′UTRs. Here we show that a member of the Hu family of RNA-binding proteins, HuB, is maternally provided in the zebrafish embryo and exhibits germ cell specific expression during embryogenesis. Restriction of HuB mRNA to the germ cells is dependent on a number of sequence elements in its 3′UTR, which act to degrade the mRNA in the soma and stabilise it in the germ cells. In addition, we show that the germ cell specific RNA-binding protein DAZL is able to promote HuB mRNA stability and translation in germ cells, and further demonstrate that these activities require a 30 nucleotide element in the 3′UTR. Our study suggests that DAZL specifically binds the HuB 3′UTR and protects the message from degradation and/or enhances HuB translation, leading to the germ cell specific expression of HuB protein

    Neural and Synaptic Defects in slytherin, a Zebrafish Model for Human Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

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    Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG IIc) is characterized by mental retardation, slowed growth and severe immunodeficiency, attributed to the lack of fucosylated glycoproteins. While impaired Notch signaling has been implicated in some aspects of CDG IIc pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have identified a zebrafish mutant slytherin (srn), which harbors a missense point mutation in GDP-mannose 4,6 dehydratase (GMDS), the rate-limiting enzyme in protein fucosylation, including that of Notch. Here we report that some of the mechanisms underlying the neural phenotypes in srn and in CGD IIc are Notch-dependent, while others are Notch-independent. We show, for the first time in a vertebrate in vivo, that defects in protein fucosylation leads to defects in neuronal differentiation, maintenance, axon branching, and synapse formation. Srn is thus a useful and important vertebrate model for human CDG IIc that has provided new insights into the neural phenotypes that are hallmarks of the human disorder and has also highlighted the role of protein fucosylation in neural development
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