807 research outputs found

    Non-canonical role for Lpar1-EGFP subplate neurons in early postnatal mouse somatosensory cortex

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    Subplate neurons (SPNs) are thought to play a role in nascent sensory processing in neocortex. To better understand how heterogeneity within this population relates to emergent function, we investigated the synaptic connectivity of Lpar1-EGFP SPNs through the first postnatal week in whisker somatosensory cortex (S1BF). These SPNs comprise of two morphological subtypes: fusiform SPNs with local axons and pyramidal SPNs with axons that extend through the marginal zone. The former receive translaminar synaptic input up until the emergence of the whisker barrels, a timepoint coincident with significant cell death. In contrast, pyramidal SPNs receive local input from the subplate at early ages but then – during the later time window – acquire input from overlying cortex. Combined electrical and optogenetic activation of thalamic afferents identified that Lpar1-EGFP SPNs receive sparse thalamic innervation. These data reveal components of the postnatal network that interpret sparse thalamic input to direct the emergent columnar structure of S1BF

    Multiwavelength Observations of LS I +61 303 with VERITAS, Swift and RXTE

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    We present results from a long-term monitoring campaign on the TeV binary LSI +61 303 with VERITAS at energies above 500 GeV, and in the 2-10 keV hard X-ray bands with RXTE and Swift, sampling nine 26.5 day orbital cycles between September 2006 and February 2008. The binary was observed by VERITAS to be variable, with all integrated observations resulting in a detection at the 8.8 sigma (2006/2007) and 7.3 sigma (2007/2008) significance level for emission above 500 GeV. The source was detected during active periods with flux values ranging from 5 to 20% of the Crab Nebula, varying over the course of a single orbital cycle. Additionally, the observations conducted in the 2007-2008 observing season show marginal evidence (at the 3.6 sigma significance level) for TeV emission outside of the apastron passage of the compact object around the Be star. Contemporaneous hard X-ray observations with RXTE and Swift show large variability with flux values typically varying between 0.5 and 3.0*10^-11 ergs cm^-2 s^-1 over a single orbital cycle. The contemporaneous X-ray and TeV data are examined and it is shown that the TeV sampling is not dense enough to detect a correlation between the two bands.Comment: 30 pages, 5 figures, 2 table, Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    The motivational antecedents of the development of mental toughness: a self-determination theory perspective

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    Mental toughness is a topic that has received growing attention in psychological literature over the past decade. Although some researchers have attempted to understand how mental toughness is developed, little effort has been made to integrate an understanding of mental toughness development with established psychological theory and research. The aim of our review is to demonstrate the utility of theory and research on motivation for understanding mental toughness and its development. In particular, we propose that self-determination theory provides a sound basis for understanding the motivational antecedents of mental toughness. To achieve our aim, we consider concepts that bridge mental toughness and self-determination theory literature, namely striving, surviving, and thriving. We conclude our review with suggestions for future lines of empirical enquiry that could be pursued to further test our propositions

    Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenesis of Mosquito Larvae: A Verdict of Accidental Death

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    Metarhizium anisopliae, a fungal pathogen of terrestrial arthropods, kills the aquatic larvae of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and yellow fever. The fungus kills without adhering to the host cuticle. Ingested conidia also fail to germinate and are expelled in fecal pellets. This study investigates the mechanism by which this fungus adapted to terrestrial hosts kills aquatic mosquito larvae. Genes associated with the M. anisopliae early pathogenic response (proteinases Pr1 and Pr2, and adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2) are upregulated in the presence of larvae, but the established infection process observed in terrestrial hosts does not progress and insecticidal destruxins were not detected. Protease inhibitors reduce larval mortality indicating the importance of proteases in the host interaction. The Ae. aegypti immune response to M. anisopliae appears limited, whilst the oxidative stress response gene encoding for thiol peroxidase is upregulated. Cecropin and Hsp70 genes are downregulated as larval death occurs, and insect mortality appears to be linked to autolysis through caspase activity regulated by Hsp70 and inhibited, in infected larvae, by protease inhibitors. Evidence is presented that a traditional host-pathogen response does not occur as the species have not evolved to interact. M. anisopliae retains pre-formed pathogenic determinants which mediate host mortality, but unlike true aquatic fungal pathogens, does not recognise and colonise the larval host

    VERITAS Observations of the gamma-Ray Binary LS I +61 303

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    LS I +61 303 is one of only a few high-mass X-ray binaries currently detected at high significance in very high energy gamma-rays. The system was observed over several orbital cycles (between September 2006 and February 2007) with the VERITAS array of imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes. A signal of gamma-rays with energies above 300 GeV is found with a statistical significance of 8.4 standard deviations. The detected flux is measured to be strongly variable; the maximum flux is found during most orbital cycles at apastron. The energy spectrum for the period of maximum emission can be characterized by a power law with a photon index of Gamma=2.40+-0.16_stat+-0.2_sys and a flux above 300 GeV corresponding to 15-20% of the flux from the Crab Nebula.Comment: accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    Status of the VERITAS Observatory

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    VERITAS, an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) system for gammma-ray astronomy in the GeV-TeV range, has recently completed its first season of observations with a full array of four telescopes. A number of astrophysical gamma-ray sources have been detected, both galactic and extragalactic, including sources previously unknown at TeV energies. We describe the status of the array and some highlight results, and assess the technical performance, sensitivity and shower reconstruction capabilities.Comment: Submitted to Proceedings of "4th Heidelberg International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy 2008

    VERITAS Observations of the BL Lac Object 1ES 1218+304

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    The VERITAS collaboration reports the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 located at a redshift of z=0.182. A gamma-ray signal was detected with high statistical significance for the observations taken during several months in the 2006-2007 observing season. The photon spectrum between ~160 GeV and ~1.8 TeV is well described by a power law with an index of Gamma = 3.08 +/- 0.34(stat) +/- 0.2(sys). The integral flux above 200 GeV corresponds to ~6% of that of the Crab Nebula. The light curve does not show any evidence for VHE flux variability. Using lower limits on the density of the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the near-IR to mid-IR we are able to limit the range of intrinsic energy spectra for 1ES 1218+304. We show that the intrinsic photon spectrum is harder than a power law with an index of Gamma = 2.32 +/- 0.37. When including constraints from the spectra of 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 0229+200, the spectrum of 1ES 1218+304 is likely to be harder than Gamma = 1.86 +/- 0.37.Comment: Submitted to Proceedings of "4th Heidelberg International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy 2008

    Detection of Extended VHE Gamma Ray Emission from G106.3+2.7 with VERITAS

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    We report the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from supernova remnant (SNR) G106.3+2.7. Observations performed in 2008 with the VERITAS atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope resolve extended emission overlapping the elongated radio SNR. The 7.3 sigma (pre-trials) detection has a full angular extent of roughly 0.6deg by 0.4deg. Most notably, the centroid of the VHE emission is centered near the peak of the coincident 12CO (J = 1-0) emission, 0.4deg away from the pulsar PSR J2229+6114, situated at the northern end of the SNR. Evidently the current-epoch particles from the pulsar wind nebula are not participating in the gamma-ray production. The VHE energy spectrum measured with VERITAS is well characterized by a power law dN/dE = N_0(E/3 TeV)^{-G} with a differential index of G = 2.29 +/- 0.33stat +/- 0.30sys and a flux of N_0 = (1.15 +/- 0.27stat +/- 0.35sys)x 10^{-13} cm^{-2} s^{-1} TeV^{-1}. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to ~5 percent of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy. We describe the observations and analysis of the object and briefly discuss the implications of the detection in a multiwavelength context.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

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    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns

    Search for supersymmetry in events with b-quark jets and missing transverse energy in pp collisions at 7 TeV