1,897 research outputs found

    Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a ferroelectric liquid crystal waveguide

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    True phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a waveguide of crosslinkable ferroelectric liquid crystals is demonstrated. These materials allow the formation of macroscopically polar structures whose order can be frozen by photopolymerization. Homeotropic alignment was chosen which offers decisive advantages compared to other geometries. All parameters contributing to the conversion efficiency are maximized by deliberately controlling the supramolecular arrangement. The system has the potential to achieve practical level of performances as a frequency doubler for low power laser diodes.Comment: 4 pages, LaTeX2e article, 3 figures, 4 EPS files, submitted to Physical Review Letter

    Reduction of ECAL data volume using lossless data compression techniques

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    We investigate the possibility of reducing the data size of the electromagnetic calorimeter ( ECAL) of CMS. The Selective Readout is applied first to reduce the data size at a manageable level. Then various data compression methods are considered, and their performances are estimated using the data from the full simulation of the ECAL system. A reduction of the average event size by a factor of two or larger is obtained in most of the cases

    Eoulsan : analyse du séquençage à haut débit dans le cloud et sur la grille

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    Eoulsan : analyse du séquençage à haut débit dans le cloud et sur la grill

    Multicenter trial of one HLA-DR–matched or mismatched blood transfusion prior to cadaveric renal transplantation

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    Multicenter trial of one HLA-DR–matched or mismatched blood transfusion prior to cadaveric renal transplantation.BackgroundThe beneficial effect of blood transfusions before cadaveric renal transplantation on allograft survival, although previously well documented, has become controversial in light of their adverse effects. Recently, it has been suggested that their clinical benefits are due to HLA-DR sharing between the blood donor and recipient.MethodsIn this prospective study, 144 naive patients were randomly assigned to receive one unit of blood matched for one-HLA-DR antigen (N = 49), or one unit of mismatched blood (N = 48), or to remain untransfused (N = 47). Graft survival and acute rejection rate were analyzed in 106 cadaveric renal allograft recipients receiving the same immunosuppressive protocol.ResultsGraft survival was similar in the three groups at one and five years: 91.7 and 80% in untransfused patients, 90.3 and 79.3% in patients transfused with one DR-antigen–matched unit, and 92.3 and 83.7% in patients transfused with HLA-mismatched blood. The difference in the incidence of six-month post-transplant acute rejections was not statistically significant in the three groups: 12 out of 36, 33.3% in nontransfused patients; 6 out of 31, 19.4% in patients transfused with one DR-matched blood; and 13 out of 39, 33.3% in patients transfused with mismatched blood.ConclusionThe results of our prospective randomized trial showed that in a population of naive patients, one transfusion mismatched or matched for one HLA-DR antigen given prior to renal transplantation had no significant effect on the incidence and severity of acute rejection, and did not influence overall long-term graft outcome. Considering the potentially deleterious adverse effects of blood transfusions, the costs, and the considerable logistical efforts required to select and type blood donors, such a procedure cannot be recommended in a routine practice for patients awaiting cadaveric kidney transplantation

    Data Filtering in the readout of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    For an efficient data taking, the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) data of the CMS experiment must be limited to 10\% of the full event size (1MB). Other requirements limit the average data size to 2kB per data acquisition link. These conditions imply a reduction factor of close to twenty on the data collected. The data filtering in the readout of the ECAL detector is discussed. Test beam data are used to study the digital filtering applied in the readout channels and a full detector simulation allows to estimate the energy thresholds to achieve the desired data suppression factor

    Beam tests of the trigger and digital processing electronics for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment

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    A prototype of the trigger and digital processing electronics for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment, coupled to a prototype of the PbWO4 crystal calorimeter, was tested during summer 96 in the H4 beamline at the CERN SPS. A very successful operation was achieved for this system, which runs in synchronous and pipelined mode at the LHC clock frequency, and performs the basic trigger and data acquisition functions needed in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. The performance of the trigger front-end electronics is well within the established requirements: a highly efficient bunch crossing identification ( > 99.9%), a good trigger energy resolution ( s/E ~9%/sq( E)+2%) and a highly efficient electron cluster shape identification ( ~99%) have been achieved. The FERMI digitizing system based on a dynamic analog compressor and a sampling ADC showed a very good perform ance, in particular the energy resolution for 150 GeV electrons was 0.54%, equal to the resolution obtained with a conventional charge integration ADC system

    Disentangling the taxonomy of the subfamily Rasborinae (Cypriniformes, Danionidae) in Sundaland using DNA barcodes

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    Sundaland constitutes one of the largest and most threatened biodiversity hotspots; however, our understanding of its biodiversity is afflicted by knowledge gaps in taxonomy and distribution patterns. The subfamily Rasborinae is the most diversified group of freshwater fishes in Sundaland. Uncertainties in their taxonomy and systematics have constrained its use as a model in evolutionary studies. Here, we established a DNA barcode reference library of the Rasborinae in Sundaland to examine species boundaries and range distributions through DNA-based species delimitation methods. A checklist of the Rasborinae of Sundaland was compiled based on online catalogs and used to estimate the taxonomic coverage of the present study. We generated a total of 991 DNA barcodes from 189 sampling sites in Sundaland. Together with 106 previously published sequences, we subsequently assembled a reference library of 1097 sequences that covers 65 taxa, including 61 of the 79 known Rasborinae species of Sundaland. Our library indicates that Rasborinae species are defined by distinct molecular lineages that are captured by species delimitation methods. A large overlap between intraspecific and interspecific genetic distance is observed that can be explained by the large amounts of cryptic diversity as evidenced by the 166 Operational Taxonomic Units detected. Implications for the evolutionary dynamics of species diversification are discussed

    Natalizumab treatment shows low cumulative probabilities of confirmed disability worsening to EDSS milestones in the long-term setting.

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    Abstract Background Though the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is commonly used to assess disability level in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), the criteria defining disability progression are used for patients with a wide range of baseline levels of disability in relatively short-term trials. As a result, not all EDSS changes carry the same weight in terms of future disability, and treatment benefits such as decreased risk of reaching particular disability milestones may not be reliably captured. The objectives of this analysis are to assess the probability of confirmed disability worsening to specific EDSS milestones (i.e., EDSS scores ≄3.0, ≄4.0, or ≄6.0) at 288 weeks in the Tysabri Observational Program (TOP) and to examine the impact of relapses occurring during natalizumab therapy in TOP patients who had received natalizumab for ≄24 months. Methods TOP is an ongoing, open-label, observational, prospective study of patients with RRMS in clinical practice. Enrolled patients were naive to natalizumab at treatment initiation or had received ≀3 doses at the time of enrollment. Intravenous natalizumab (300 mg) infusions were given every 4 weeks, and the EDSS was assessed at baseline and every 24 weeks during treatment. Results Of the 4161 patients enrolled in TOP with follow-up of at least 24 months, 3253 patients with available baseline EDSS scores had continued natalizumab treatment and 908 had discontinued (5.4% due to a reported lack of efficacy and 16.4% for other reasons) at the 24-month time point. Those who discontinued due to lack of efficacy had higher baseline EDSS scores (median 4.5 vs. 3.5), higher on-treatment relapse rates (0.82 vs. 0.23), and higher cumulative probabilities of EDSS worsening (16% vs. 9%) at 24 months than those completing therapy. Among 24-month completers, after approximately 5.5 years of natalizumab treatment, the cumulative probabilities of confirmed EDSS worsening by 1.0 and 2.0 points were 18.5% and 7.9%, respectively (24-week confirmation), and 13.5% and 5.3%, respectively (48-week confirmation). The risks of 24- and 48-week confirmed EDSS worsening were significantly higher in patients with on-treatment relapses than in those without relapses. An analysis of time to specific EDSS milestones showed that the probabilities of 48-week confirmed transition from EDSS scores of 0.0–2.0 to ≄3.0, 2.0–3.0 to ≄4.0, and 4.0–5.0 to ≄6.0 at week 288 in TOP were 11.1%, 11.8%, and 9.5%, respectively, with lower probabilities observed among patients without on-treatment relapses (8.1%, 8.4%, and 5.7%, respectively). Conclusions In TOP patients with a median (range) baseline EDSS score of 3.5 (0.0–9.5) who completed 24 months of natalizumab treatment, the rate of 48-week confirmed disability worsening events was below 15%; after approximately 5.5 years of natalizumab treatment, 86.5% and 94.7% of patients did not have EDSS score increases of ≄1.0 or ≄2.0 points, respectively. The presence of relapses was associated with higher rates of overall disability worsening. These results were confirmed by assessing transition to EDSS milestones. Lower rates of overall 48-week confirmed EDSS worsening and of transitioning from EDSS score 4.0–5.0 to ≄6.0 in the absence of relapses suggest that relapses remain a significant driver of disability worsening and that on-treatment relapses in natalizumab-treated patients are of prognostic importance

    Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals